Science Nutrition Ch.1-3

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Midterm study guide for chapter one.
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1

Reasons people make food choices...

taste, habit, ethnicity, convenience, emotions, social interactions, values, and health benefits.

2

6 classes of nutrients

water, minerals, lipids, carbohydrates, protein, and vitamins.

3

Nutrient vs. essential nutrient

Essential are nutrients that your body cannot make itself and regular nutrients are chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body for energy.

4

Inorganic

Does not contain carbon or pertaining to living things.

5

Organic

Substance containing carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds.

6

Organic Nutrients

Carbs, lipid, protein, vitamins

7

Inorganic Nutrients

minerals and water

8

Macronutrients

a type of food required in large amounts in the human diet

9

Micronutrients

substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development.

10

Energy yielding nutrients

Carbs, fat, and protein.

11

Amount of kcals per gram from alcohol (not a nutrient)

7 kcal/g

12

Amount of kcals per gram from carbs

4 kcal/g

13

Amount of kcals per gram for protein

4 kcal/g

14

Amount of kcals per gram for fat

9 kcal/g

15

True/False: Minerals yield energy.

False.

16

Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)

reference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people

17

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

a nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a group

18

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a group

19

Adequate Intake

a value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people (used when an RDA cannot be determined)

20

Upper Intake Level (UL)

highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of harmful health effects to almost all individuals in the general population

21

AMDR for fat

20-35%

22

AMDR for protein

10-35%

23

AMDR for carbs

45-65%

24

How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?

16

25

What product of digestion is NOT normally released directly into the bloodstream?

Fats

26

What part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?

Epiglottis

27

What stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?

Secretin

28

What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?

Epiglottis

29

What best describes the normal pH of the stomach?

Very acidic.

30

What is the most metabolically active organ?

Liver.

31

What is a feature of the lymphatic system?

Carries fats away from the intestines.

32

What is the primary function of the rectum?

Stores waste materials prior to evacuation

33

What is a bolus

Portion of food swallowed one at a time.

34

What is found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?

Enzymes.

35

What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?

Starch

36

Textured vegetable protein is usually made from

Soybeans

37

According to the FDA, a food label that reads "improves memory" is an example of a

Structure function-claim

38

Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the

Daily Values

39

Nutrient dense refers to foods that

provide more nutrients relative to kcalories.

40

REFINED grain products only contain the

endosperm

41

Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?

400-500

42

In what food group are legumes found?

Protein

43

What term is used to describe a cut of meat having a low fat content?

Round

44

Which of the following food groups is actually consumed in amounts greater than recommended by the USDA?

Protein foods.

45

6 principles and guidelines

Adequacy, Balance, Calorie, Density, Moderation, Variety

46

Nutrition Claims

"fat free" or "less sodium"

47

Health Claims

"Can help reduce the risk of cholesterol"

48

Structure-function Claims

"supports immunity and digestive health"

49

Bran

around the kernel of the grain and is rich in nutrients and fiber.

50

Endosperm

contains starch and proteins

51

Germ

the seed that grows into a wheat plant, rich in vitamins and minerals.

52

Husk

inedible part of a grain.

53

Enriched vs. fortified.

Enriched is when lost nutrients are added back into the food and fortified is when nutrients that were never there are added to the food in order to enhance flavor.

54

Gallbladder

organ that stores and concentrates bile.

55

GI Tract path in order

mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus.

56

4 muscular actions

perstalsis, segmentation, stomach action, and sphincter contractions.

57

Secretions are a mix of

water and enzymes

58

Enzymes

promote breaking water (hydrolysis) and are protein facilitators of chemical reactions.

59

Protein digestion begins...

in the gastric juice of the stomach.

60

Three absorption techniques

simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.