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Chapter 23 The Digestive System Exam

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Chapter 23 The Digestive System Exam Multiple choice exam

updated 1 year ago by SuperNerdo

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  • 1
    1) The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
    A) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen
    B) in the walls of the tract organs
    C) in the pons and medulla
    D) only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 854
  • 2
    2) The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.
    A) carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract
    B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
    C) distribute hormones
    D) return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 881
  • 3
    3) The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.
    A) digestion
    B) absorption
    C) ingestion
    D) secretion
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 852-853
  • 4
    4) When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
    A) absorption
    B) secretion
    C) chemical digestion
    D) mechanical digestion
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 854
  • 5
    5) The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
    A) mesenteries
    B) lamina propria
    C) serosal lining
    D) mucosal lining
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 855
  • 6
    6) From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
    A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
    B) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
    C) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
    D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 856-857
  • 7
    7) Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
    A) thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus
    B) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells
    C) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells
    D) rennin
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 870
  • 8
    8) What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?
    A) crown
    B) enamel
    C) pulp
    D) cementum
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 863
  • 9
    9) The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
    A) muscularis mucosae
    B) serosa
    C) adventitia
    D) lamina propria
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 856
  • 10
    10) Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
    A) gastrin
    B) secretin
    C) cholecystokinin CCK
    D) gastric inhibitor peptide
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 886
  • 11
    11) Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
    A) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.
    B) Bile functions to emulsify fats.
    C) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.
    D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 884
  • 12
    12) The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
    A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi
    B) the vast array of digestive enzymes
    C) Brunner's glands
    D) the rugae
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 878
  • 13
    13) Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
    A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.
    B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.
    C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
    D) There are 32 primary teeth, and most children lose these teeth due to decay because they are never very strong.
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 862
  • 14
    14) Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
    A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
    B) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.
    C) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.
    D) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 862
  • 15
    15) Which of the following is not true of saliva?
    A) cleanses the mouth
    B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
    C) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus
    D) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 860
  • 16
    16) The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
    A) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells
    B) parietal cells and glial cells
    C) serous cells and mucous cells
    D) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 860
  • 17
    17) The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
    A) only salts and minerals
    B) only proteases and amylase
    C) mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals
    D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 860-861
  • 18
    18) In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
    A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
    B) is the first site where absorption takes place
    C) is the only place where fats are completely digested
    D) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 866, 871
  • 19
    19) Chyme is created in the ________.
    A) mouth
    B) stomach
    C) esophagus
    D) small intestine
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 866
  • 20
    20) Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
    A) chief cells
    B) parietal cells
    C) serous cells
    D) mucous neck cells
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 870
  • 21
    21) Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
    A) enteroendocrine cells
    B) parietal cells
    C) zymogenic cells
    D) mucous neck cells
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 870
  • 22
    22) There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
    A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
    B) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients
    C) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time
    D) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 872-873
  • 23
    23) Peristaltic waves are ________.
    A) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract
    B) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
    C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
    D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 853
  • 24
    24) Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
    A) starches and complex carbohydrates
    B) protein and peptide fragments
    C) simple carbohydrates and alcohols
    D) fatty acids
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 873
  • 25
    25) Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
    A) chief cells of the stomach
    B) parietal cells of the duodenum
    C) Brunner's glands
    D) goblet cells of the small intestine
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 870
  • 26
    26) You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
    A) gastrin
    B) amylase
    C) cholecystokinin
    D) trypsin
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 895
  • 27
    27) The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.
    A) portal vein
    B) pancreatic acini
    C) bile canaliculus
    D) hepatopancreatic ampulla
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 886
  • 28
    28) The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
    A) diffusion
    B) active transport
    C) hydrolysis
    D) denatured
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 895
  • 29
    29) Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
    A) rennin
    B) pepsin
    C) lipase
    D) cholecystokinin
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 897
  • 30
    30) Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
    A) mucin
    B) pepsinogen
    C) hydrochloric acid
    D) rennin
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 870
  • 31
    31) Hepatocytes do not ________.
    A) produce digestive enzymes
    B) process nutrients
    C) store fat-soluble vitamins
    D) detoxify
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 881
  • 32
    32) Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
    A) cephalic
    B) gastric
    C) intestinal
    D) enterogastric
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 872-873
  • 33
    33) Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
    A) B12
    B) K
    C) A
    D) C
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 871
  • 34
    34) Chief cells ________.
    A) occur in the intestine
    B) produce HCl
    C) are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands
    D) produce mucin
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 870
  • 35
    35) Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
    A) mastication
    B) catabolism
    C) anabolism
    D) fermentation
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 854
  • 36
    36) The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
    A) liver
    B) spleen
    C) pancreas
    D) stomach
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 881
  • 37
    37) If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
    A) serosa
    B) mucosa
    C) muscularis externa
    D) submucosa
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 857
  • 38
    38) The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
    A) duodenum
    B) ileum
    C) jejunum
    D) pyloric sphincter
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 877
  • 39
    39) The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
    A) incisor tooth
    B) molar tooth
    C) premolar tooth
    D) canine tooth
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 863
  • 40
    40) Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
    A) lipids
    B) carbohydrates
    C) proteins
    D) starches
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 881
  • 41
    41) ________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.
    A) Iron
    B) Sodium
    C) Phosphorus
    D) Calcium
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 900
  • 42
    42) Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.
    A) omenta
    B) peritoneum
    C) mesentery
    D) round ligament
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 855
  • 43
    43) The lamina propria is composed of ________.
    A) loose connective tissue
    B) dense irregular connective tissue
    C) dense regular connective tissue
    D) reticular connective tissue
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 856
  • 44
    44) ________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.
    A) Distension
    B) Carbohydrates
    C) Peptides
    D) Low acidity
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 873
  • 45
    45) Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.
    A) accessory pancreatic duct
    B) main pancreatic duct
    C) cystic duct
    D) hepatopancreatic ampulla
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 886
  • 46
    46) The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
    A) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
    B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
    C) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral
    D) provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 878
  • 47
    47) Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
    A) produce gas
    B) absorb bilirubin
    C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
    D) synthesize vitamins C and D
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 893
  • 48
    48) Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
    A) somatic neurons in the spinal cord
    B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
    C) the rubrospinal tracts
    D) the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 873
  • 49
    49) Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
    A) fungiform and circumvallate
    B) palatine and circumvallate
    C) circumvallate and filiform
    D) fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 859
  • 50
    50) Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
    A) parietal cells
    B) zymogenic cells
    C) mucous neck cells
    D) enteroendocrine cells
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 870
  • 51
    51) Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
    A) dextrinase
    B) amylase
    C) trypsin
    D) lipase
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 897
  • 52
    52) Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
    A) tongue
    B) esophagus
    C) nasal cavity
    D) salivary glands
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 859
  • 53
    53) A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
    A) bile
    B) pancreatic juice
    C) intestinal juice
    D) gastric juice
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 884
  • 54
    54) The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
    A) mucosa
    B) submucosa
    C) muscularis externa
    D) serosa
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 856-857
  • 55
    55) Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
    A) does not contain villi
    B) exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli
    C) is longer than the small intestine
    D) has haustra
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 890
  • 56
    56) What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
    A) HCl
    B) pepsinogen
    C) intrinsic factor
    D) gastric lipase
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 870
  • 57
    57) How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
    A) simple diffusion
    B) facilitated diffusion
    C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy
    D) bulk flow
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 878
  • 58
    58) Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
    A) Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice.
    B) The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion.
    C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
    D) Gastric secretion is enhanced by very low pH (below a pH of 2).
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 872-873
  • 59
    59) Paneth cells ________.
    A) are more common in the ileum than in the jejunum
    B) are absorptive cells in the small intestine
    C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
    D) are located next to the lacteal in a villus
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 879
  • 60
    60) Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
    A) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.
    B) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.
    C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
    D) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 887, 889
  • 61
    61) Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
    A) a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa
    B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
    C) secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion
    D) bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 886
  • 62
    62) Select the correct statement about absorption.
    A) Eighty percent of ingested materials have been absorbed by the end of the large intestine.
    B) Carbohydrates diffuse across the villus epithelium and are then actively transported into blood capillaries.
    C) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.
    D) Amino acid transport is linked to chloride transport.
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 899
  • 63
    63) Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.
    A) Chlorine ion absorption is coupled to glucose and amino acid transport.
    B) Potassium moves across the epithelium by active transport.
    C) If vitamin B is not present, calcium is not absorbed.
    D) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 900
  • 64
    64) You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
    A) the pancreas
    B) the buccal glands
    C) the thyroid gland
    D) the parotid glands
    Answer: A
    Page Ref: 885
  • 65
    65) The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
    A) Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.
    B) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive upset.
    C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
    D) The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food.
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 885
  • 66
    66) The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from ________.
    A) ectoderm
    B) mesoderm
    C) endoderm
    D) pachyderm
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 901, 904
  • 67
    67) A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.
    A) acidosis
    B) ketosis
    C) alkalosis
    D) dysphagia
    Answer: C
    Page Ref: 876-878
  • 68
    68) Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
    A) ACh
    B) secretin
    C) gastrin
    D) histamine
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 873; Tbl. 23.1
  • 69
    69) Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
    A) hepatic portal vein
    B) inferior vena cava
    C) superior mesenteric artery
    D) celiac artery
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 856
  • 70
    70) Which of these is not a component of saliva?
    A) lysozyme
    B) a cyanide compound
    C) defensins
    D) nitric oxide
    Answer: D
    Page Ref: 860
  • 71
    71) There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
    A) D
    B) A
    C) M
    D) E
    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 893
  • 72
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