PS 101 Chapter 7

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1

the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

learning

2

learning that certain events occur together. the events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences.

associative learning

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and event or situation that evokes a response

stimulus

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the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.

cognitive leraning

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an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.

shaping

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increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

positive reinforcement

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increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.

negative reinforcement

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an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.

primary reinforcer

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a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.

conditioned reinforcer

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a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.

reinforcement schedule

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a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.

classical conditioning

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the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) and not (2)

behaviorism

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in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.

neutral stimulus (NS)

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in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned response (US) (such as food in the mouth)

unconditioned response (UR)

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in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response (UR)

unconditioned stimulus (US)

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in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus. (CS)

conditioned response (CR)

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in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response. (CR)

conditioned stimulus (CS)

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in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.

fixed-ratio schedule

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in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

variable-ratio schedule

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in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.

fixed-interrval schedule

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in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

variable-interval schedule

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an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows.

punishment

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behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.

respondent behavior

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behavior that operates on the environment, producing the consequences.

operant behavior

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the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.

extinction

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the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.

generalization

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(1) in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus (2) in social psychology, unjustifiable negative behavior towards a group and its members.

discrimination

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a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

operant conditioning

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in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.

reinforcement

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a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.

intrinsic motivation

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a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.

extrinsic motivation

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learning by observing others

observational learning

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the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.

modeling