Chapters 6-9

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1

Know when it is preferable to use light, transmission electron or scanning electron microscopy.

Light Microscopy: When in labs, used to look at specimens
Scanning Electron Microscopy: magnify up to 100,000 times
Transmission Electron Microscopy:magnify up to a million times

2

Know the main differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

prokaryotic cells: No nucleus, unicellular (fungi or bacteria)
eukaryotic cells: contains cell membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus. Presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, cell wall, and structure of DNA.

3

Know how surface area and volume are related and how they impact cell size.

The surface area must be large enough to supply the volume of the whole cell. When the volume surpasses the surface area, the cell will stop growing.

4

Know the function of ribosomes and how free and bound ribosomes differ from one another.

Function of ribosomes: Help for protein synthesis
Free ribosomes: located in cytoplasm and produce proteins produced by the cell.
Bound ribosomes: attatched to the ER and unable to move and produce proteins that are transported out of the cell.

5

Know what molecules travel in and out of the nucleus via the nuclear pores.

Look at pictures, watch videos.

6

Know what is meant by the endosymbiont hypothesis and what that means for the structure of mitochondria and chloroplasts.

It proposes that early eukaryotic cells acquired the precursors of mitochondria and chloroplasts by engulfing certain types of bacteria

7

Know what parts of the cell are parts of the endomembrane system.

consisting of the nuclear envelope, ER and Golgi apparatus, vesicles and other organelles derived from them, and the plasma membrane.

8

Know how the peroxisome detoxifies alcohol and other toxins.

The peroxisomes in the hepatocytes carry out this function by transferring hydrogen from the ethanol or alcohol molecules to oxygen.

9

Know how motor proteins provide molecule motion.

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10

Know the features of the extracellular matrix and how they participate in animal cell behavior.

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11

Test yourself! Identify each of the organelles shown in the cell below. Generally know the function of each.

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12

Know what is meant by selective permeability.

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13

Know how temperature, cholesterol content and saturated/unsaturated fatty acid concentration impact fluidity of the plasma membrane.

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14

Know the function of the oligosaccharides on glycoproteins and glycolipids.

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15

Know the function of aquaporins.

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16

Know the difference between passive and active transport and examples of each.

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17

Know what impacts the movement of molecules through a membrane (charge, polarity, size etc…)

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18

Know what channel proteins are and how they function.

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19

Know what a membrane potential is and how they are maintained in animal and plant cells.

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20

Know the definition of diffusion and examples of the process.

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21

Know what is meant by the electrochemical gradient.

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22

Know the various forms of endocytosis and the differences between each.

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23

Know what is meant by hypo, hyper and isotonic.

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24

Be able to determine the movement of permeable molecules, non-permeable molecules and water across a semi-permeable membrane under varying conditions of tonicity.

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25

Test yourself! Determine what would happen to an animal and plant cell placed in hypo, hyper and isotonic environments.

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