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Hole's Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 9 twelfth edition
updated 1 year ago by gaily1
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1

Epicranius

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Origin: Occipital Bone

Insertion: Skin and muscles around eye

Action: Raises eyebrow as when surprised

2

Orbicularis Oculi

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Origin: Maxillary & Frontal bones

Insertion: Skin around eye

Action: Closes eye as in blinking

3

Orbicularis Oris

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Origin: Muscles near the mouth

Insertion: Skin of central lip

Action: Closes lips, protrudes lips as for kissing

4

Buccinator

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Origin: Outer surfaces of Maxilla and Mandible

Insertion: Orbicularis oris

Action: Compresses cheeks inward as when blowing air

5

Zygomaticus Major

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Origin: Zygomatic bone

Insertion: Corner of mouth

Action: Raises corner of mouth as when smiling

6

Zygomaticus Minor

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Origin: Zygomatic bone

Insertion: Corner of mouth

Action: Raises corner of mouth as when smiling

7

Platysma

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Origin: Fascia in upper chest

Insertion: Lower border of mandible

Action: Draws angle of mouth downward

8

Masseter

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Origin: Lower border of zygomatic arch

Insertion: Lateral surface of mandible

Action: Elevates mandible

9

Temporalis

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Origin: Temporal Bone

Insertion: Coronoid precess + anterior ramus of mandible

Action: Elevates mandible

10

Medial Pterygoid

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Origin: Sphenoid, palatine, maxillary bones

Insertion: Medial surface of mandible

Action: Elevates mandible and moves it side to side

11

Lateral Pterygoid

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Origin: Sphenoid bone

Insertion: Anterior surface of mandibular condyle

Action: Depresses and protracts mandible and moves it from side to side

12

Sternocleidomastoid

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Origin: Anterior surface of sternum and upper surface of clavicle

Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone

Action: Pulls head to one side, flexes neck or elevates sternum

13

Splenius Capitis

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Origin: Spinous precesses of lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Occipital Bone

Action: Rotates head, bends head to one side, or extends neck

14

Semispinalis Capitis

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Origin: Processes of lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Occipital Bone

Action: Extends head, bends head to one side, rotates head

15

Quadratus Lumborum

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Origin: Iliac crest

Insertion: Upper lumbar vertebrae and twelfth rib

Action: Aids in breathing, extends lumbar region of vertebral column

16

Iliocostalis Lumborum

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Origin: Iliac crest

Insertion: Lower six ribs

Action: Extends lumbar region of vertebral column

17

Iliocostalis Thoracis

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Origin: Lower six ribs

Insertion: Upper six ribs

Action: Holds spine erect

18

Iliocostalis Cervicis

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Origin: Upper six ribs

Insertion: Fourth through sixth cervical vertebrae

Action: Extends cervical region of vertebral column

19

Longissimus Thoracis

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Origin: Lumbar vertebrae

Insertion: Thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae and ribs 9+10

Action: Extends thoracic region of vertebral column

20

Longissimus Cervicis

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Origin: Fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Second through sixth cervical vertebrae

Action: Extends cervical region of vertebral column

21

Longissimus Capitis

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Origin: Upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae

Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone

Action: Extends and rotates head

22

Spinalis Thoracis

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Origin: Upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Upper thoracic vertebrae

Action: Extends vertebral column

23

Spinalis Cervicis

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Origin: Ligamentum nuchae and seventh cervical vertebra

Insertion: Axis

Action: Extends vertebral column

24

Spinalis Capitis

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Origin: Upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae

Insertion: Occipital bone

Action: Extends vertebral column

25

Trapezius

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Origin: Occipital bone and spines of cervical and thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Clavicle, spine, and acromion process of scapula

Action: Rotates scapula; various fibers raise scapula, pull scapula medially, or pull scapula and shoulder downward.

26

Rhomboid Major

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Origin: Spines of upper thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Medial border of scapula

Action: Retracts, elevates, and rotates scapula

27

Rhomboid Minor

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Origin: Spines of lower cervical vertebrae

Insertion: Medial border of scapula

Action: Retracts and elevates scapula

28

Levator Scapulae

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Origin: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

Insertion: Medial margin of scapula

Action: Elevates scapula

29

Serratus Anterior

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Origin: Outer surfaces of upper ribs

Insertion: Ventral surface of scapula

Action: Pulls scapula anteriorly and downward

30

Pectoralis Minor

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Origin: Sternal ends of upper ribs

Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula

Action: Pulls scapula forward and downward or raises ribs

31

Coracobrachialis

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Origin: Coracoid process of scapula

Insertion: Shaft of humerus

Action: Flexes and adducts the arm

32

Pectoralis Major

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Origin: Clavicle, sternum, and costal cartilages of upper ribs

Insertion: Intertubercular groove of humerus

Action: Flexes, adducts, and rotates arm medially

33

Teres Major

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Origin: Lateral border of scapula

Insertion: Intertubercular groove of humerus

Action: Extends, adducts, and rotates arm medially

34

Latissimus Dorsi

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Origin: Spines of sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic vertebrae, iliac crest, and lower ribs

Insertion: Intertubercular groove of humerus

Action: Extends, adducts, and rotates the arm medially, or pulls the shoulder downward and back

35

Supraspinatus

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Origin: Posterior surface of scapula above spine

Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus

Action: Abducts arm

36

Deltoid

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Origin: Acromion process, spine of the scapula, and the clavicle

Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Action: Abducts, extends and flexes arm

37

Subscapularis

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Origin: Anterior surface of scapula

Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus

Action: Rotates arm medially

38

Infraspinatus

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Origin: Posterior surface of scapula below spine

Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus

Action: Rotates arm laterally

39

Teres Minor

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Origin: Lateral border of scapula

Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus

Action: Rotates arm laterally

40

Biceps Brachii

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Origin: Coracoid process and tubercle above glenoid cavity of scapula

Insertion: Radial tuberosity of radius

Action: Flexes elbow and rotates hand laterally

41

Brachioradialis

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Origin: Distal lateral end of humerus

Insertion: Lateral surface of radius above styloid process

Action: Flexes elbow

42

Brachialis

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Origin: Anterior shaft of humerus

Insertion: Coroniod process of ulna

Action: Flexes elbow

43

Triceps Brachii

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Origin: Tubercle below glenoid cavity and lateral and medial surfaces of humerus

Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna

Action: Extends elbow

44

Supinator

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Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus and crest of ulna

Insertion: Lateral surface of radius

Action: Rotates forearm laterally and supinates hand

45

Pronator teres

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Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna

Insertion: Lateral surface of radius

Action: Rotates forearm medially and pronates hand

46

Pronator Quadratus

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Origin: Anterior distal end of ulna

Insertion: Anterior distal end of radius

Action: Rotates forearm medially and pronates hand

47

Flexor Carpi Radialis

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Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Base of second and third metacarpals

Action: Flexes wrist and abducts hand

48

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

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Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus and olecranon process

Insertion: Carpal and metacarpal bones

Action: Flexes wrist and adducts hand

49

Palmaris Longus

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Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Fascia of palm

Action: Flexes wrist

50

Flexor Digitorum Profundus

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Origin: Anterior surface of ulna

Insertion: Bases of distal phalanges in fingers 2-5

Action: Flexes distal joint of fingers

51

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

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Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna and radius

Insertion: Tendons of fingers

Action: Flexes fingers and wrist

52

Extensor Capri Radialis Longus

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Origin: Distal end of humerus

Insertion: Base of second metacarpal

Action: Extends wrist and abducts hand

53

Extensor Capri Radialis Brevis

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Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Base of second and third metacarpals

Action: Extends wrist and abducts hand

54

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

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Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion; Base of fifth metacarpal

Action: Extends wrist and adducts hand

55

Extensor Digitorum

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Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Posterior surface of phalanges in fingers 2-5

Action: Extends fingers

56

External Oblique

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Origin: Outer surfaces of lower ribs

Insertion: Outer lip of iliac crest and linea alba

Action: Tenses abdominal wall and compresses abdominal contents

57

Internal Oblique

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Origin: Crest of ilium and inguinal ligament

Insertion: Cartilages of lower ribs, linea alba, and crest of pubis

Action: Tenses abdominal wall and compresses abdominal contents

58

Transversus Abdominis

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Origin: Costal cartilages of lower ribs, processes of lumbar vertebrae, lip of iliac crest, and inguinal ligament

Insertion: Linea alba and crest of pubis

Action: Tenses abdominal wall and compresses abdominal contents

59

Rectus Abdominis

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Origin: Crest of pubis and symphysis pubis

Insertion: Xiphoid process of sternum and costal cartilages

Action: Tenses abdominal wall and compresses abdominal contents; flexes vertebral column

60

Levator Ani

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Origin: Pubic bone and ischial spine

Insertion: Coccyx

Action: Supports pelvic viscera and provides sphincter like action in anal canal and vagina

61

Coccygeus

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Origin: Ischial spine

Insertion: Sacrum and coccyx

Action: Supports pelvic viscera and provides sphincter like action in anal canal and vagina

62

Superficial Transversus Perinei

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Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Central tendon

Action: Supports pelvic viscera

63

Bulbospongiosus

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Origin: Central tendon

Insertion: Males - Urogenital diaphragm and fascia of penis / Females - Pubic arch and root of clitoris

Action: Males - Assists emptying of urethra and assists in erection of penis Females - Constricts vagina and assists in erection of clitoris

64

Ischiocavernosus

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Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Pubic arch

Action: Males - Erects penis / Females - Erects clitoris

65

Sphincter Urethrae

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Origin: Margins of pubis and ischium

Insertion: Fibers of each unite with those from other side

Action: Opens and closes urethra

66

Psoas Major

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Origin: Lumbar intervertebral discs; bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae

Insertion: Lesser trochanter of femur

Action: Flexes thigh

67

Iliacus

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Origin: Iliac fossa of ilium

Insertion: Lesser trochanter of femur

Action: Flexes thigh

68

Gluteus Maximus

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Origin: Sacrum, coccyx, and posterior surface of ilium

Insertion: Posterior surface of femur and fascia of thigh

Action: Extends hip

69

Gluteus Medius

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Origin: Lateral surface of ilium

Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur

Action: Abducts and rotates thigh medially

70

Gluteus Minimus

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Origin: Lateral surface of ilium

Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur

Action: Abducts and rotates thigh medially

71

Piriformis

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Origin: Anterior surface of sacrum

Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur

Action: Abducts and rotates thigh laterally

72

Tensor fasciae latae

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Origin: Anterior iliac crest

Insertion: Iliotibial tract (fascia of thigh)

Action: Abducts, flexes and rotates thigh medially

73

Pectineus

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Origin: Spine of pubis

Insertion: Femur distal to lesser trochanter

Action: Flexes and adducts thigh

74

Adductor Brevis

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Origin: Pubic bone

Insertion: Posterior surface of femur

Action: Adducts, flexes and rotates thigh laterally

75

Adductor Longus

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Origin: Pubic bone near symphysis pubis

Insertion: Posterior surface of femur

Action: Adducts, flexes and rotates thigh laterally

76

Adductor Magnus

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Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Posterior surface of femur

Action: Adducts thigh, posterior portion extends and anterior portion flexes thigh

77

Gracilis

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Origin: Lower edge of symphysis pubis

Insertion: Medial surface of tibia

Action: Adducts thigh and flexes knee

78

Biceps Femoris

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Origin: Ischial tuberosity and linea aspera of femur

Insertion: Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia

Action: Flexes knee, rotates leg laterally and extends thigh

79

Semitendinosus

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Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Medial surface of tibia

Action: Flexes knee, rotates leg medially and extends thigh

80

Semimembranosus

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Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia

Action: Flexes knee, rotates leg medially and extends thigh

81

Sartorius

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Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine

Insertion: Medial surface of tibia

Action: Flexes knee and hip, abducts and rotates thigh laterally

82

Rectus Femoris

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Origin: Spine of ilium and margin of acetabulum

Insertion: Patella by common tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Action: Extends knee

83

Vastus Lateralis

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Origin: Greater trochanter and posterior surface of femur

Insertion: Patella by common tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Action: Extends knee

84

Vastus Medialis

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Origin: Medial surface of femur

Insertion: Patella by common tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Action: Extends knee

85

Vastus Intermedius

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Origin: Anterior and lateral surfaces of femur

Insertion: Patella by common tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Action: Extends knee

86

Tibialis Anterior

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Origin: Lateral condyle and lateral surface of tibia

Insertion: Tarsal bone and first metatarsal

Action: Dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot

87

Fibularis Tertius

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Origin: Anterior surface of fibula

Insertion: Dorsal surface of fifth metatarsal

Action: Dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot

88

Extensor digitorum longus

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Origin: Lateral condyle of tibia and anterior surface of fibula

Insertion: Dorsal surfaces of second and third phalanges of four lateral toes

Action: Dorsiflexion and eversion of foot, extends toes

89

Gastrocnemius

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Origin: Lateral and medial condyles of femur

Insertion: Posterior surface of calcaneus

Action: Plantar flexion of foot, flexes knee

90

Soleus

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Origin: Head and shaft of fibula and posterior surface of tibia

Insertion: Posterior surface of calcaneus

Action: Plantar flexion of foot

91

Plantaris

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Origin: Femur

Insertion: Calcaneus

Action: Plantar flexion of foot, flexes knee

92

Flexor digitorum longus

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Origin: Posterior surface of tibia

Insertion: Distal phalanges of four lateral toes

Action: Plantar flexion and inversion of foot, flexes four lateral toes

93

Tibialis Posterior

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Origin: Lateral condyle and posterior surface of tibia and posterior surface of fibula

Insertion: Tarsal and metatarsal bones

Action: Plantar flexion and inversion of foot

94

Fibularis Longus

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Origin: Lateral condyle of tibia and head and shaft of fibula

Insertion: Tarsal and metatarsal bones

Action: Plantar flexion and eversion of foot, also supports arch

95

Extensor Hallucis Longus

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Origin: Anterior surface of fibula

Insertion: Distal phalanx of the great toe

Action: Extends great toe, dorsiflexion and inversion of foot