Chapter 15 Pharmacology - Test

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1

Which of the following are aspects of drug administration the sonographer is expected to know.

A) the indications and contraindications for its use
B) the side effects
C) the safe dose
D) the safe route
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

2

True or False?

The radiographer who administers a drug incorrectly is not held liable for the error.

False

3

Drugs that must bear the legend “caution: federal law prohibits dispensing without prescription” include the following:

A) Hypnotics and narcotics
B) Alternative drugs
C) All diet drugs
D) All analgesics

A) Hypnotics and narcotics

4

True or False

Alternative dietary and herbal supplements are classified as food, not drugs.

True

5

Define drug dependence and drug addiction.

reliance of a drug from psychological or physiologic reasons

6

The alternative name for Valium is diazepam. Valium is:

A) The trade name
B) The generic name
C) The chemical name

A) The trade name

7

If the radiographer is required to administer a drug with which he is not familiar, he must seek information prior to administering the drug. He would seek such information in which of the following reference books?

A) The encyclopedia
B) The radiographer’s textbook
C) The Physician’s Desk Reference
D) From his colleague
E) From the Los Angeles Times

C) The Physician’s Desk Reference

8

Drugs given by mouth are generally given in larger doses. This is because:

A) They absorb more slowly
B) They absorb more rapidly
C) They are unreliable
D) Larger doses ensure that some of the drug will remain to perform the intended effect

A) They absorb more slowly

9

True or False?

A damaged or absent drug surface alters the time it takes a drug to reach its intended site

True

10

For a drug to reach its therapeutic effect more quickly, a physician might order:

A) A larger initial dose, and later smaller doses
B) A smaller initial dose, then a larger dose
C) A bolus
D) A maximizing dose

A) A larger initial dose, and later smaller doses

11

Marjorie Merriweather takes oral morphine for chronic pain. After taking the prescribed dosage for 2 weeks, she notices that it no longer seems to be controlling the pain. This reaction is called:

A) Addiction
B) Dependency
C) Tolerance
D) An adverse reaction

C) Tolerance

12

Two drugs must never be mixed in the same syringe for administration before checking their:

A) Effectiveness
B) Correct dosage
C) Compatibility
D) Expiration dates

C) Compatibility

13

Drug absorption varies from person to person. The efficiency of drug absorption is largely dependent on:

A) The time of day
B) The sex of the individual
C) The absorptive surface available
D) The type of drug

C) The absorptive surface available

14

True or False

Drugs given orally are not affected by the first-pass effect.

False

15

Factors that may influence the effect of a drug are:

A) Age and weight
B) Sex and time of day
C) Medication history and the patient’s temperament
D) a and b are correct
E) a, b, and c are correct

E) a, b, and c are correct

16

Factors the radiographer must consider before administering a drug to a patient include:

A) The age of the patient
B) The gender of the patient
C) The patient’s health status
D) a and b are correct
E) a, b, and c are correct

E) a, b, and c are correct

17

True or False?

Contrast agents are categorized as drugs. This is because they are absorbed into the systemic circulation and may produce a physiologic response on the body.

True

18

The physiologic effect of a contrast agent on the patient’s body that may create an adverse reaction when administered is due to:

A) Its low viscosity as compared to other drugs
B) The fact that it is isotonic
C) Its high viscosity, which prompts a sudden shift in body fluid from the interstitial spaces and cells into the systemic circulation
D) Its shift of fluid into the interstitial spaces and cells related to its high viscosity

C) Its high viscosity, which prompts a sudden shift in body fluid from the interstitial spaces and cells into the systemic circulation

19

Expected side effects of contrast agents administered by intravascular route are:

A) Feeling of warmth and flushing
B) Feeling of being short of breath
C) Metallic taste in mouth
D) Complaints of itching
E) a and c are correct

E) a and c are correct

20

List obligations of the radiographer before he begins administering a contrast agent.

obtain detailed assessment
prepare for any reaction that might occur
prepare the patient emotionally

21

A patient is receiving an intravenous contrast agent by bolus intravenous injection. The patient begins to complain of nausea, itching around his eyes, feeling dizzy, and a headache. The radiographer decides the patient is having:

A) Side effects from the injection
B) A vasovagal reaction
C) A mild adverse reaction
D) A severe adverse reaction
E) A moderate adverse reaction

C) A mild adverse reaction

22

If coldness and swelling at the site of an intrvenous infusion are observed, the radiographer must:

A) Call a code
B) Stop the infusion and apply cold or warm compresses
C) Inform the patient that this is a normal occurrence
D) Attempt to restart the IV

B) Stop the infusion and apply cold or warm compresses

23

List the five rights of drug administration.

the right drug
the right dosage
the right route
the right patient
the right time

24

PRN

A) milliliter
B) at once
C) every day
D) intravenous
E) by mouth
F) as necessary

F) as necessary

25

qd

A) milliliter
B) at once
C) every day
D) intravenous
E) by mouth
F) as necessary

C) every day

26

STAT

A) milliliter
B) at once
C) every day
D) intravenous
E) by mouth
F) as necessary

B) at once

27

IV

A) milliliter
B) at once
C) every day
D) intravenous
E) by mouth
F) as necessary

D) intravenous

28

mL

A) milliliter
B) at once
C) every day
D) intravenous
E) by mouth
F) as necessary

A) milliliter

29

PO

A) milliliter
B) at once
C) every day
D) intravenous
E) by mouth
F) as necessary

E) by mouth

30

Which of the following is not required item in the sonographer's charting if he administers a drug?

A) the sonographer's signature
B) the drug name
C) the patient's signature
D) The time given
E) the dose and route of adminstration

C) the patient's signature

31

All drugs given by parenteral routes are given using:

A) Medical aseptic technique
B) Surgical aseptic technique

B) Surgical aseptic technique

32

List the items that must be included in the incident report if a drug is administered in error.

dosage administered
name of incorrect drug
why
patients reaction
how remedied

33

Discuss the precautions that must be taken when administering a drug to an elderly person.

tension of tourniquet
potential for dehydration
size of needle
condition of the veins

34

Discuss the precautions that must be taken when administering a drug to a child.

emotional state
finding suitable vein
size of needle
having peds specialist administer
adverse reactions
need for extreme vigilance
correct emergency equipment at hand
need for child to be fully awake before discharge

35

A ____ drug is one that is designed for or involving local application and action

topical

36

Which of the following is not a variable the physician considers when selecting a contrast agent for use?

A) The viscosity
B) the ionic strength
C) its persistence in the body
D) its ability to stay separate from body fluids
E) the osmolality

D) its ability to stay separate from body fluids

37

The method of drug action on living tissues

A) half-life
B) clearance rate
C) Pharmacodynamics
D) Metabolism
E) Side Effects

C) Pharmacodynamics

38

The rate of drug removal from the body

A) half-life
B) clearance rate
C) Pharmacodynamics
D) Metabolism
E) Side Effects

B) clearance rate

39

Unintended but nontoxic effect of a drug

A) half-life
B) clearance rate
C) Pharmacodynamics
D) Metabolism
E) Side Effects

E) Side Effects

40

The time it takes for a 50% decrease in a drug's presence in the body

A) half-life
B) clearance rate
C) Pharmacodynamics
D) Metabolism
E) Side Effects

A) half-life

41

The process by which the body alters the chemical structure of a drug

A) half-life
B) clearance rate
C) Pharmacodynamics
D) Metabolism
E) Side Effects

D) Metabolism

42

Within the gastrointestinal tract

A) Intra-articular
B) Intralesional
C) Intra-arterial
D) Enteral
E) Intracardiac

D) Enteral

43

Within a lesion or wound

A) Intra-articular
B) Intralesional
C) Intra-arterial
D) Enteral
E) Intracardiac

B) Intralesional

44

Within a cavity of a joint

A) Intra-articular
B) Intralesional
C) Intra-arterial
D) Enteral
E) Intracardiac

A) Intra-articular

45

Within the chambers of the heart

A) Intra-articular
B) Intralesional
C) Intra-arterial
D) Enteral
E) Intracardiac

E) Intracardiac

46

Within the artery

A) Intra-articular
B) Intralesional
C) Intra-arterial
D) Enteral
E) Intracardiac

C) Intra-arterial

47

The first 3 months of pregnancy is considered the first ______ of pregnancy.

trimester

48

_____ indicates fluid passing out of a blood vessel and into surrounding tissues

extravasation

49

Drug absorption varies from person to person. The efficiency of drug absorption is largely dependent on:

A) The absorptive surface available
B) the time of day
C) the sex of the person
D) the type of drug

A) The absorptive surface available

50

An acute disease condition that presents with an extremely low number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

A) Hypokalemia
B) Thrombocytopenia
C) Hypothyroidism
D) Thyrotoxicosis
E) Agranulocytosis

E) Agranulocytosis

51

An abnormally low concentration of potassium ions in the bloodstream

A) Hypokalemia
B) Thrombocytopenia
C) Hypothyroidism
D) Thyrotoxicosis
E) Agranulocytosis

A) Hypokalemia

52

A disease state related to excess amounts of thyroid hormone

A) Hypokalemia
B) Thrombocytopenia
C) Hypothyroidism
D) Thyrotoxicosis
E) Agranulocytosis

D) Thyrotoxicosis

53

An abnormally small number of platelets in the circulating blood

A) Hypokalemia
B) Thrombocytopenia
C) Hypothyroidism
D) Thyrotoxicosis
E) Agranulocytosis

B) Thrombocytopenia

54

Reduced amount of thyroid hormone leading to a disease process

A) Hypokalemia
B) Thrombocytopenia
C) Hypothyroidism
D) Thyrotoxicosis
E) Agranulocytosis

C) Hypothyroidism