Chapter 5- Integumentary System

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1

What are the two layers that make up the skin?

Epidermis, dermis

2

The epidermis is made up of what type of tissue?

Epithelial

3

The dermis is made up of what type of tissue?

Connective

4

The hypodermis is also called?

Superficial fascia

5

What anchors the skin to underlying structures (muscles) and is mostly made up of adipose tissue?

Hypodermis (superficial fascia)

6

What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?

stratum basale

7

What is the most superficial layer of the epidermis?

stratum corneum

8

What are the cell types located in the epidermis?

keratinocytes, melanocytes, dendritic and tactile

9

Dendritic cells are also called?

Langerhans

10

Tactile cells are also called?

Merkel

11

Keratinocyets are tightly connected by what?

Desmosomes

12

Which types of cells are macrophages that are key activators of the immune system?

Dendritic/Langerhans

13

Which cells are sensory touch receptors?

Tactile/Merkel

14

Which layer of the epidermis consists of a single row of stem cells?

Stratum basale

15

Which layer, also known as the prickly layer, contains prekeratin filaments attached to desmosomes, and has abundant melanosomes and dendritic cells?

Stratum spinosum

16

Which layer has flattened cells and is where keratinization begins, and has water-resistant glycolipids to slow water loss?

Stratum granulosum

17

Which layer, also known as the clear layer, only exists in thick skin?

Stratum lucidum

18

Which layer, also known as the horny layer, consists of 20-30 rows of dead, flat, anucleate keratinized membranous sacs, that protect from abrasion and penetration?

Stratum corneum

19

What is apoptosis?

Programmed cell death (in the DNA)

20

What cells are located in the dermis?

Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and white blood cells

21

What are the two layers of the dermis?

Papillary, reticular

22

What are dermal papillae?

Superficial peg-like projections

23

What are the touch receptors located in the dermal papillae?

Meissner's corpuscles

24

What creates fingerprints and enhance gripping ability?

friction ridges

25

Which layer of the dermis contains dense fibrous connective tissue, elastic fibers for stretch-recoil properties, and collagen fibers?

reticular layers

26

What are the collagen fibers parallel to the skin surface that are important to surgeons?

cleavage lines

27

What are the dermal folds at or near joints?

flexure lines

28

What are silvery-white scars otherwise known as stretch marks called?

striae

29

Where are striae located?

the dermis

30

What are fluid filled pockets that separate the epidermal and dermal layers?

blisters

31

What are the pigments that contribute to skin color?

melanin, carotene, hemoglobin

32

Sunspots, also known as tinea versicolor, are what?

fungal infections

33

Melanin is produced where?

melanocytes

34

Carotene accumulates where?

stratum corneum and hypodermis

35

Bronzing is due to inadequate hormones, such as in what disease?

Addison's disease

36

What are the appendages of the skin?

hair, hair follicles, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous (oil) glands

37

what is the smooth muscle attached to the follicle that is responsible for goose bumps?

arrector pili

38

What is the pale, fine body hair of children and adult females?

vellus

39

What is the coarse, long hair of eyebrows and scalp?

terminal

40

Sweat glands are also known as ?

sudoriferous

41

What are the main types of sweat glands?

eccrine, apocrine

42

Which type of sweat glands also produce protein?

apocrine

43

Which is the most abundant sweat gland, located in palms, soles and forehead?

eccrine

44

Which glands function in thermoregulation?

eccrine

45

which glands are located in axillary and anogenital areas?

apocine

46

which gland produces sweat, fatty substances and proteins?

apocrine

47

which gland has ducts that empty into pores?

eccrine

48

which glands have sweat that empties into hair follicles?

apocrine

49

which type of glands are modified apocrine glands that line the external ear canal and secrete cerumen (ear wax)?

ceruminous

50

which type of glands are modified apocrine glands that secrete milk?

mammary

51

Which type of skin cancer is most commom, stratum basale cells proliferate and invade dermis and hypodermis

basal cell carcinoma

52

what is the second most common form of skin cancer that involves keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum, metastacizes and is scaly, reddened papule on scalp, ears, lower lip and hands?

squamous cell carcinoma

53

What is the most dangerous type of cancer?

melanoma

54

Which degree of burn causes only epidermal damage ?

first degre

55

which degree of burn causes epidermal and upper dermal damage and blisters appear?

second degree

56

which degree of burn damages the entire thickness of the skin and usually requires skin grafting?

third degree

57

What is vernix caseosa?

sebaceous gland secretion, protects skin of fetus