Bones and The Skeletal System

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1

How many bones does the skeleton have?

206

2

What two parts is the skeleton divided into?

Axial
Appendicular

3

Axial Skeleton

axis of the body

4

Appendicaular Skeleton

extremities

5

What is the axial skeleton function?

Support and Protect

6

Comprised of:

skull, vertebral column, rib cage

7

What is the appendicular skeleton function?

locomation and manipulation

8

Comprised of:

arms, shoulder, legs, hips

9

What are the 5 types of bones?

Long
short
flat
irregular
sesamoid

10

Long bones

longer then it is wide
shaft plus 2 ends
named for it shape
most bones of the extermities

11

Example of long bones

femur
phalanges

12

Short bones

cube shaped

13

Example of short bones

wrist
ankle bones
patella

14

Flat bones

flat, thin, can be curved

15

Example of Flat bones

sternum
scapula
ribs
skull bones

16

Irregular Bones

complicated, don't fits in other category

17

Example of Irregular Bones

vertebrae,
hip bones

18

Sesamoid bones

form in a tendon

19

Example of Sesamoid Bones

patella

20

What are the functions of the bones?

Support
Protection
Movement
Storage
blood cell formation

21

Support

lower limbs, ribs

22

Protection

vertebrae
ribs
cranium
pelvis

23

Movement

act as levers when combined with muscles

24

Storage

Minerals
Triglycerides

25

Minerals

Ca++, PO4 released into blood as needed

26

Triglycerides

Stored energy sources

27

Blood cell formation
(RBC only)

occurs in marrow cavity
(known as hematopoiesis)

28

Bone Markings

sites muscle and ligament attachments
pathways for nerves and vessels

29

3 Categories

Projections
Depressions
Openings

30

Projections

Bulges, outward growths
Indications of stress from the pull of muscles
Modifies surfaces to form joints

31

Depressions

Indentions in the bone

32

Openings

Passageway thru bone

33

What are the 12 Bone Marking Projections

Tuberosity
Crest
Trochanter
Line
Tubercle
Condyle
Epicondyle
Spine
Process
Head
Facet
Ramus

34

Tuberosity

large and rounded
ex. ischial tuberosity

35

Crest

Narrow and prominent ridge
ex. lliac crest (on hip bone)

36

Trochanter

large, blunt, irregular, shaped
ex. greater trochanter

37

Line

Narrow ridge
ex. Pectineal line (in femur)

38

Tubercle

Small and rounded
ex. lesser tubercle

39

Condyle

rounded articular(joints) projection
ex. mandibular condyle

40

Epicondyle

raised area, above a condyle
ex. medial epicondyle (humerus)

41

Spine

sharp, slender, pointed
ex. scapular spine

42

What are the 4 Bone Marking of Depressions

Groove
Notch
Fossa

43

Groove

furrow
ex. radial groove

44

Notch

indentation at the end of a bone
ex. sciatic notch

45

Fossa

Shallow, base-like
ex. Olecranon Fossa (is on Humerus)

46

What are the bone marking openings?

Foramen
Meatus
Sinus
Fissure

47

Foramen

Round oval opening
ex. vertebral foramen

48

Meatus

Canal like passageway
ex. external acoustic meatus (skull)

49

Sinus

Cavity within a bone
ex. ethmoid sinus

50

Fissure

Narrow and slit-like
ex. superior orbital fissure

51

Compact Bone- Microscopic

Functional unit of bone osteon

52

Central canal

contain nerves, vessels

53

Lamellae

Concentric rings-collagen

54

Conllagen fibers in adjacent lamellae run in different directions, help withstand

twisting forces

55

Lacunae

Small spaces, house osteocytes

56

Canaliculi

connect lacunae (tiny little cells)

57

Osteocytes

maintain bone matrix, send message to other cells

58
card image

Name part A,B,C

A- Lamellae
B- Central Canal
C- Lacunae

59

What are the 2 Bone Textures

Compact and Spongy Bone

60

Compact Bone

Outlayer
Appears smooth and solid
Composed of ostoens so is also called Lamellar bone

61

Spongy Bone

internal
Honeycomb appearance

62

Trabeculae or empty spaces

Filled with bone marrow in living

63

What is known as Woven Bone

Trabeculae

64

Chemical Composition

Organic components
Inorganic components

65

Organic componenets

Cells: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes

66

Osteoid:

Gound substances, collagen fibers

67

Osteoid Functions

help with structure, give flexibility and strength

68

Inorganic componenents

hydroxyapatities: mineral salts

69

Hydroxyapatites Functions

give bone it hardness, resist tension

70

Long Bone Parts

Diaphysis
Epiphysis
Metaphysis

71

Diaphysis

Tubular shaft, long axis
thick collar of compact bone
Surrounds medullary cavity

72

Epiphysis

end of the bone
wider then diaphysis
covered with articular cartilage- hyaline

73

Metaphysis

where diaphysis and epiphysis meet

74

Epiphysial plate

active site of bone growth-kids

75

Epiphysial line

adult remnant of the plate

76

Periosteum

Covers exterior part of bone except the joint surface
-white double layer membrane
-rich with blood vessels,nerves, lymphatic vessels

77

Fibrous layer

outer layer, dense irregluar CT

78

Osteogenic layer

inner layer formed by cells

79

What are 2 osteogenic layers

osteoblasts
osteoclasts

80

Osteoblasts

secret bone matrix, bone forming

81

Osteoclasts

bone destroying cells

82

Medullary cavity

central core of shaft

83

In adults the medullary cavity contains

yellow marrow-fat

84

In children the medullary cavity contains

red marrow

85

Hematopoietic tissue

where red marrow is

86

Hematopoietic tissue is found

medullary cavity and some areas of spongy bone

87

Hematopoietic tissue is found in infants

diaphysis and all area of spongy bone

88

Hematopoietic tissue is found in adults

epiphysis of femar/humerus, sternum, hips
yellow marrow can turn to red marrow

89

Endosteum

covers internal bone surface

90

Endosteum contains both

osteoclasts and osteoblasts

91

Articular cartilage

covers epiphysis

92

Articular cartilage composed of

hyaline cartilage

93

Articular Function

Cushions end of bone during joint movements

94

Nutrients foramina

Allows vessels and nerves to enter diaphysis

95

Short Bones

similar structure but no significant marrow cavity