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Exercise 22: Human Reflex Physiology

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created 4 years ago by jncanf
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Exercise 22 pg. 349 - 352 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!

updated 4 years ago by jncanf

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1

DEFINE REFLEX

REFLEXES ARE RAPID, PREDICTABLE, INVOLUNTARY MOTOR RESPONSES TO STIMULI; THEY ARE MEDIATED OVER NEURAL PATHWAYS CALLED REFLEX ARCS.

2

NAME FIVE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF A REFLEX

RECEPTOR, SENSORY NEURON, INTERGRATION CENTER, MOTOR NEURON, AND EFFECTOR

3

IN GENERAL, WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF REFLEX TESTING IN A ROUTINE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION?

IT IS AN IMPORTANT DIAGNOSTIC TOOK FOR ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. IT HELPS TO INDICATE DEGENERATION OR PATHOLOGY OF PORTIONS OF THE NERVES, OR CAN HELP PIN POINT AN AREA OF A SPINAL CORD INJURY.

4

REFLEXES CLASSIFIED AS SOMATIC REFLEXES INCLUDE A __1__, __2__, __3__, __4__, __5__, __6__, AND __7__.

1. CROSS-EXTENSOR REFLEX
2. CORNEAL REFLEX
3. GAG REFLEX
4. PLANTAR REFLEX
5. ABDOMINAL REFLEX
6. ACHILLES REFLEX
7. PATELLAR REFLEX

5

THE SIMPLE STRETCH REFLEXES ARE __1__ AND __2__

1. PATELLAR REFLEX
2. ACHILLES REFLEX

6

THE SUPERFICIAL CORD REFLEXES ARE __1__ AND __2__

1. ABDOMINAL REFLEX
2. PLANTAR REFLEX

7

REFLEXES CLASSIFIED AS AUTONOMIC REFLEXES INCLUDE __1__ AND __2__.

1. PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX
2. CILIOSPINAL REFLEX

8

NAME TWO CORD-MEDIATED REFLEXES

PATELLAR REFLEX AND CROSS-EXTENSOR REFLEX

9

NAME TWO SOMATIC REFLEXES IN WHICH THE HIGHER BRAIN CENTERS PARTICIPATE

PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEXES AND SUPERFICIAL CORD REFLEXES

10

CAN THE STRETCH REFLEX BE ELICITED IN A PITHED ANIMAL (THAT IS, AN ANIMAL IN WHICH THE BRAIN HAS BEEN DESTROYED)?

YES, EVEN WITHOUT THE BRAIN A STRETCH REFLEX ONLY NEEDS A AFFERENT, CONTROL CENTER, AND MOTOR FIBERS TO BE ELICITED. THESE COMPONENTS STILL STAY INTACT IF THE BRAIN HAS BEEN DESTROYED.

11

TRACE THE REFLEX ARC, NAMING EFFERENT AND AFFERENT NERVES, RECEPTORS, EFFECTORS, AND INTEGRATION CENTERS.

PATELLAR REFLEX

HIT PATELLAR TENDON TO EXCITE MUSCLE SPINDLES OF QUADRICEPS. (AFFERENT NERVE) FEMORAL NERVE TO (INTEGRATION CENTERS) L2 - L4 FROM THERE IT GOES TO (EFFERENT NERVE) FEMORAL BACK TO QUADRICEPS (EFFECTOR) TO MAKE CONTRACTION. ALSO SENDS TO HAMSTING (EFFECTOR) TO GIVE IT RESISTANCE.

12

TRACE THE REFLEX ARC, NAMING EFFERENT AND AFFERENT NERVES, RECEPTORS, EFFECTORS, AND INTEGRATION CENTERS.

ACHILLES REFLEX

HIT TENDON NOCICEPTORS IN TENDO-ACHILLES. GOES TO CNS BY SCIATIC NERVE (AFFERENT) THEN GOES TO INTERNEURONS IN SPINAL CORD (INTEGRATION CENTER) S1 - S2. THEN TO ALFA MOTOR N (EFFERENT N) TIBIAL NERVE FROM SCIATIC NERVE TO LEAD TO THE )EFFECTOR) GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE.

13

WHAT FACTOR INCREASES THE EXCITATORY LEVEL OF THE SPINAL CORD?

MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN ANOTHER BODY AREA

14

WHAT FACTOR DECRESES THE EXCITATORY LEVEL OF THE MUSCLES?

FATIGUE

15

WHAT A SUBJECT IS CONCENTRATING ON AN ARITHMETIC PROBLEM, DID THE CHANGE NOTED IN THE PATELLAR REFLEX INDICATE THAT BRAIN ACTIVITY IS NECESSARY FOR THE PATELLAR REFLEX OR ONLT THAT IT MAY MODIFY IT?

THERE WAS NO EFFECT AT ALL, IT DOES NOT INVOLVE THE BRAIN AT ALL.

16

CILIOSPINAL REFLEX

SYMPATHETIC

17

PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX

PARASYMPATHETIC

18

SALIVARY REFLEX

SYMPATHETIC

19

DECRIBE THE PROTECTIVE ASPECT OF:

PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX

TO PROTECT AND HELP CONTROL THE EYES FROM DAMAGE FROM DIFFERENT LIGHT SETTINGS

20

DECRIBE THE PROTECTIVE ASPECT OF:

CORNEAL REFLEX

TO PROTECT THE EYES FROM FOREIGN BODIES AND LIGHTS

21

DECRIBE THE PROTECTIVE ASPECT OF:

CROSSED-EXTENSOR REFLEX

TO HELP PROTECT AND MAINTAIN BALANCE WHEN A WITHDRAW REFLEX OCCURS AT ANOTHER PART OF THE BODY. HELPS SO YOU WONT HURT YOURSELF WHEN A REFLEX OCCURS, SUCH AS FALLING.

22

WAS THE PUPILLARY CONSENSUAL RESPONSE CONTRALATERAL OR IPSILATERAL?

CONTRALATERAL

23

WHY WOULD SUCH A RESPONSE BE OF SIGNIFICANT VALUE IN THIS PARTICULAR REFLEX? (CONTRALATERAL)

HELP EVEN OUT LIGHT RAYS MAKING IT LESS STRESSFUL FOR THE AFFECTED EYE.

24

DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE TYPES OF ACTIVITIES ACCOMPLISHED BY SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC REFLEXES.

SOMATIC REFLEXES INCLUDE ALL PATHWAYS THAT ARE VOLUNTARY ACTIONS OF THE BODY. AND AUTONOMIC REFLEXES INCLUDE ALL PATHWAYS THAT RESULT IN INVOLUNTARY ACTIONS.

25

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26

REFLEX: MICTURITION (URINATION)

GIVE ORGAN INVOLVED, RECEPTORS STIMULATED AND ACTION.

ORGAN: BLADDER, URETHA, URETERS
RECEPTORS STIMULATED: STRETCH RECEPTORS
ACTION: THE SENSATION TO URINATE (URINATION)

27

REFLEX: HERING-BREUER

GIVE ORGAN INVOLVED, RECEPTORS STIMULATED AND ACTION.

ORGAN: LUNG(S)
RECEPTORS STIMULATED: STRETCH RECEPTORS (PULMONARY)
ACTION: INSPIRATIONS, INHALATION WITHOUT OVER STRETCHING THE LUNGS

28

REFLEX: DEFECATION

GIVE ORGAN INVOLVED, RECEPTORS STIMULATED AND ACTION.

ORGAN: MOUTH, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINE, LARGE INTESTINE, AND ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE ORGANS
RECEPTORS STIMULATED: STRETCH RECEPTORS
ACTION: STOOL PASSAGE AND BEING REGULARITY

29

REFLEX: CAROTID SINUS

GIVE ORGAN INVOLVED, RECEPTORS STIMULATED AND ACTION.

ORGAN: INTERAL CAROTID ARTERY, COMMON CAROTID ARTERY, HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS
RECEPTORS STIMULATED: BERORECEPTORS
ACTION: CONTROL OF BLOOD PRESSURE BY MEDIATING CHANGES IN THE HEART RATE

30

HOW DO BASIC AND LEARNED OR ACQUIRED REFLEX DIFFER?

BASIC REFLEXES INHERITED YOUR BORN WITH; LEARNED AND AQUIRED REFLEXES ARE LEARNED BY REPETITION YOUR NOT BORN WITH THESE.

31

NAME AT LEAST THREE FACTORS THAT MAY MODIFY REACTION TIME TO A STIMULUS.

AGE, FATIGUE, AND ILLNESS.

32

IN GENERAL, HOW DID THE RESPONSE TIME FOR THE LEARNED ACTIVITY PERFORMED IN THE LABORATORY COMPARE TO THAT FOR THE SIMPLE PATELAR REFLEX?

A LEARNED REFLEX IS NOT AS QUICK AS A BASIC REFLEX.

33

DID THE RESPONSE TIME WITHOUT VERBAL STIMULI DECREASE WITH PRACTICE?

YES

34

EXPLAIN, IN DETAIL, WHY RESPONSE TINE INCREASED WHEN THE SUBJECT HAD TO REACT TO A WORD STIMULUS.

BECAUSE IT DISTRACTS YOU, IT MAKES YOUR REFLEX SLOW DOWN, YOUR BODY CAN NOT GO AS FAST WITH TWO REFLEXES AS WITH ONE.