Radreview technical factors 281

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1

Focal-spot blur is greatest
A.
directly along the course of the central ray
B.
toward the cathode end of the x-ray beam
C.
toward the anode end of the x-ray beam
D.
as the SID is increased

B.
toward the cathode end of the x-ray beam

2

Accurate operation of the AEC device depends on

the thickness and density of the object

positioning of the object with respect to the photocell

beam restriction

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

3

An x-ray exposure of a particular part is made and restricted to a 14 x 17 in. field size. The same exposure is repeated, but the x-ray beam is restricted to a 4 x 4 in. field. Compared with the first image, the second image will demonstrate

less density

more contrast

more density

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
3 only
D.
2 and 3 only

B.
1 and 2 only

4

If a particular grid has lead strips 0.40 mm thick, 4.0 mm high, and 0.25 mm apart, what is its grid ratio?
A.
8:1
B.
10:1
C.
12:1
D.
16:1

D.
16:1

5

An exposure was made at 40-in. SID using 5 mAs and 105 kVp with an 8:1 grid. In an effort to improve radiographic contrast, the image is repeated using a 12:1 grid and 90 kVp. Which of the following exposure times will be most appropriate, using 400 mA, to maintain the original density?
A.
0.01 s
B.
0.03 s
C.
0.1 s
D.
0.3 s

B.
0.03 s

6

Compared with slow-speed screens, high-speed screens are often used to

minimize patient dose

keep exposure time to a minimum

image fine anatomic details

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

7

Which of the following technical changes would best serve to remedy the effect of very dissimilar tissue densities?
A.
Use of high-speed screens
B.
Use of a high-ratio grid
C.
High-kilovoltage exposure factors
D.
High milliampere-seconds exposure factors

C.
High-kilovoltage exposure factors

8

Tree-like branching black marks on a radiograph are usually the result of
A.
bending the film acutely
B.
improper development
C.
improper film storage
D.
static electricity

D.
static electricity

9

Recorded detail depends on all the following except

1. quantity of filtration.

2. anode angle.

3. intensification factor of screens.
A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

10

The exposure factors of 300 mA, 0.017 second, and 72 kVp produce an mAs value of
A.
5.
B.
50.
C.
500.
D.
5000.

A.
5

11

In which of the following examinations would a cassette front with very low absorption properties be especially desirable?
A.
Extremity radiography
B.
Abdominal radiography
C.
Mammography
D.
Angiography

C.
Mammography

12

An exposure was made at a 36-in. SID using 300 mA, a 30-ms exposure, and 80 kV with a 400-speed film–screen combination and an 8:1 grid. It is desired to repeat the radiograph and, in order to improve recorded detail, to use a 40-in. SID and a 200-speed film–screen combination. With all other factors remaining constant, what exposure time will be required to maintain the original radiographic density?
A.
0.03 second
B.
0.07 second
C.
0.14 second
D.
0.36 second

B.
0.07 second

13

Involuntary motion can be caused by
1. peristalsis.
2. severe pain.
3. heart muscle contraction.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

14

A satisfactory radiograph was made using a 36-in. SID, 12 mAs, and a 12:1 grid. If the examination will be repeated at a distance of 42 in. and using a 5:1 grid, what should be the new milliampere-seconds value to maintain the original density?
A.
5.6
B.
6.5
C.
9.7
D.
13

B.
6.5

15

A satisfactory radiograph was made using a 40-inch SID, 10 mAs, and a 12:1 grid. If the examination will be repeated at a distance of 48 inches and using an 8:1 grid, what should be the new mAs to maintain the original density?
A.
5.6
B.
8.8
C.
11.5
D.
14.4

C.
11.5

16

If a 6-in. OID is introduced during a particular radiographic examination, what change in SID will be necessary to overcome objectionable magnification?
A.
The SID must be increased by 6 in..
B.
The SID must be increased by 18 in..
C.
The SID must be decreased by 6 in..
D.
The SID must be increased by 42 in..

D.
The SID must be increased by 42 in..

17

Angulation of the central ray may be required
1. to avoid superimposition of overlying structures.
2. to avoid foreshortening or self-superimposition.
3. to project through certain articulations.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

18

Types of moving grid mechanisms include
1. oscillating.
2. reciprocating.
3. synchronous.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
2 and 3 only

B.
1 and 2 only

19

What is the best way to reduce magnification distortion?
A.
Use a small focal spot.
B.
Increase the SID.
C.
Decrease the OID.
D.
Use a slow screen-film combination.

C.
Decrease the OID.

20

The factors that control recorded detail include
1. Focal spot size
2. Type of rectification
3. SID

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 3 only

21

Which of the following groups of exposure factors will produce the shortest scale of contrast?
A.
200 mA, 0.08 second, 95 kV, 12:1 grid
B.
500 mA, 0.03 second, 70 kV, 8:1 grid
C.
300 mA, 0.05 second, 95 kV, 8:1 grid
D.
600 mA, 1/40 seconds, 70 kV, 6:1 grid

B.
500 mA, 0.03 second, 70 kV, 8:1 grid

22

Characteristics of high-ratio focused grids, compared with lower-ratio grids, include which of the following?

They allow more positioning latitude.

They are more efficient in collecting SR.

They absorb more of the useful beam.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

23

A part whose width is 6 inches will be imaged at 44 inches SID. The part to be imaged lies 9 inches from the IR. What will be the projected image width of the part?
A.
8 inches
B.
10 inches
C.
12 inches
D.
20 inches

A.
8 inches

24

Geometric unsharpness is influenced by which of the following?

Distance from object to image

Distance from source to object

Distance from source to image

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

25

Which of the following will influence recorded detail?

Screen speed

Screen–film contact

Focal spot

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

26

All the following are related to recorded detail except
A.
milliamperage
B.
focal-spot size
C.
screen speed
D.
OID

A.
milliamperage

27

The exposure factors of 400 mA, 70 ms, and 78 kV were used to produce a particular radiographic density and contrast. A similar radiograph can be produced using 500 mA, 90 kV, and
A.
14 ms
B.
28 ms
C.
56 ms
D.
70 ms

B.
28 ms

28

Which of the following terms is used to express resolution/recorded detail?
A.
Kiloelectronvolts (keV)
B.
Modulation transfer function (MTF)
C.
Relative speed
D.
Latitude

B.
Modulation transfer function (MTF)

29

A radiograph exposed using a 12:1 ratio grid may exhibit a loss of density at its lateral edges because the
A.
SID was too great.
B.
grid failed to move during the exposure.
C.
x-ray tube was angled in the direction of the lead strips.
D.
CR was off-center.

A.
SID was too great.

30

Characteristics of low ratio focused grids include the following:
1. they have a greater focal range
2. they are less efficient in collecting SR
3. they can be used inverted

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

31

Which of the following terms refers to light being reflected from one intensifying screen, through the film, to the opposite emulsion and intensifying screen?
A.
Reflectance
B.
Crossover
C.
Scatter
D.
Filtration

B.
Crossover

32

Shape distortion is influenced by the relationship between the

x-ray tube and the part to be imaged

part to be imaged and the IR

IR and the x-ray tube

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

33

The sensitometric curve may be used to

identify automatic processing problems

determine film sensitivity

illustrate screen speed

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

34

Which of the following units is (are) used to express resolution?

Line-spread function

Line pairs per millimeter

Line-focus principle

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

35

The fact that x-ray intensity across the primary beam can vary as much as 45% describes the
A.
line-focus principle.
B.
transformer law.
C.
anode heel effect.
D.
inverse-square law.

C.
anode heel effect.

36

An exposure was made using 300 mA, 40 ms exposure, and 85 kV. Each of the following changes will decrease the radiographic density by one half except a change to
A.
1/50 s exposure
B.
72 kV
C.
10 mAs
D.
150 mA

C.
10 mAs

37

Which of the following is the factor of choice for the regulation of radiographic (optical) density?
A.
kVp
B.
mAs
C.
SID
D.
Filtration

B.
mAs

38

Exposure factors of 90 kVp and 4 mAs are used for a particular nongrid exposure. What should be the new mAs if an 8:1 grid is added?
A.
8
B.
12
C.
16
D.
20

C.
16

39
card image

The interaction between x-ray photons and matter illustrated in Figure 4–22 is most likely to be associated with

high kilovoltage

high contrast

high-atomic-number absorber

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3
Figure 4–22.

A.
1 only

40

A decrease in kilovoltage will result in
A.
a decrease in optical density
B.
a decrease in contrast
C.
a decrease in recorded detail
D.
a decrease in image resolution

A.
a decrease in optical density

41

Using a short (25–30 in.) SID with a large (14 x 17 in.) IR is likely to
A.
increase the scale of contrast
B.
increase the anode heel effect
C.
cause malfunction of the AEC
D.
cause premature termination of the exposure

B.
increase the anode heel effect

42

When blue-emitting rare earth screens are matched properly with the correct film emulsion, what type of safelight should be used in the darkroom?

Red

GBX-2

Ultraviolet

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

43

The reduction in x-ray photon intensity as the photon passes through material is termed
A.
absorption
B.
scattering
C.
attenuation
D.
divergence

C.
attenuation

44

A radiograph made using 300 mA, 0.1 second, and 75 kVp exhibits motion unsharpness, but otherwise satisfactory technical quality. The radiograph will be repeated using a shorter exposure time. Using 86 kV and 500 mA, what should be the new exposure time?
A.
0.12 second
B.
0.06 second
C.
0.03 second
D.
0.01 second

C.
0.03 second

45

With milliamperage adjusted to produce equal exposures, all the following statements are true except
A.
a single-phase examination done at 10 mAs can be duplicated with three-phase, 12-pulse at 5 mAs.
B.
There is greater patient dose with three-phase equipment than with single-phase equipment.
C.
Three-phase equipment can produce comparable radiographs with less heat unit (HU) buildup.
D.
Three-phase equipment produces lower-contrast radiographs than single-phase equipment.

B.
There is greater patient dose with three-phase equipment than with single-phase equipment.

46

Which of the following terms is used to describe unsharp edges of tiny radiographic details?
A.
Diffusion
B.
Mottle
C.
Blur
D.
Umbra

C.
Blur

47

Focusing distance is associated with which of the following?
A.
Computed tomography
B.
Chest radiography
C.
Magnification radiography
D.
Grids

D.
Grids

48

Phosphors classified as rare earth include

lanthanum oxybromide.

gadolinium oxysulfide.

cesium iodide.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

49

Greater latitude is available to the radiographer when using

high-kilovoltage factors.

a slow film–screen combination.

a high-ratio grid.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

50

The relationship between the height of a grid's lead strips and the distance between them is referred to as grid
A.
ratio
B.
radius
C.
frequency
D.
focusing distance

A.
ratio

51

Exposure factors of 400 mA, 20 ms, 68 kVp, 400-speed system, at 40-in. SID were used to produce a satisfactory radiographic image. A change to 4 mAs can be best compensated for by which of the following?
A.
Increasing the SID to 60 in.
B.
Decreasing the SID to 20 in.
C.
Decreasing the speed to 200
D.
Increasing the kilovoltage to 78 kVp

D.
Increasing the kilovoltage to 78 kVp

52

Exposure rate increases with an increase in
1. mA.
2. kVp.
3. SID.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

53

Of the following groups of technical factors, which will produce the greatest radiographic density?
A.
10 mAs, 74 kV, 44-in. SID
B.
10 mAs, 74 kV, 36-in. SID
C.
5 mAs, 85 kV, 48-in. SID
D.
5 mAs, 85 kV, 40-in. SID

B.
10 mAs, 74 kV, 36-in. SID

54

Radiographic contrast is the result of
A.
transmitted electrons
B.
differential absorption
C.
absorbed photons
D.
milliampere-seconds selection

B.
differential absorption

55

X-ray photon energy is inversely related to

photon wavelength

applied milliamperes (mA)

applied kilovoltage (kV)

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

56

A lateral radiograph of the lumbar spine was made using 200 mA, 1-second exposure, and 90 kV. If the exposure factors were changed to 200 mA, 0.5 second, and 104 kV, there would be an obvious change in which of the following?

Radiographic density

Scale of radiographic contrast

Distortion

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
2 only

57

If the center photocell were selected for a lateral projection of the lumbar spine that was positioned with the spinous processes instead of the vertebral bodies centered to the grid, how would the resulting radiograph look?
A.
The image would be underexposed.
B.
The image would be overexposed.
C.
The image would be correctly exposed.
D.
An exposure could not be made.

A.
The image would be underexposed.

58

Conditions contributing to poor radiographic film archival quality include

fixer retention

insufficient developer replenishment

poor storage conditions

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

59

Geometric unsharpness is most likely to be greater
A.
at long SIDs.
B.
at the anode end of the image.
C.
with small focal spots.
D.
at the cathode end of the image.

D.
at the cathode end of the image.

60

A 5-in. object to be radiographed at a 44-in. SID lies 6 in. from the IR. What will be the image width?
A.
5.1 in.
B.
5.7 in.
C.
6.1 in.
D.
6.7 in.

B.
5.7 in.

61

Disadvantages of using low-kilovoltage technical factors include

insufficient penetration

increased patient dose

diminished latitude

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

62

What pixel size has a 1024 x 1024 matrix with a 35-cm FOV?
A.
30 mm
B.
0.35 mm
C.
0.15 mm
D.
0.03 mm

B.
0.35 mm

63

Which combination of exposure factors most likely will contribute to producing the shortest-scale contrast?
A.
mAs: 10; kV: 70; Film–screen system: 400; Grid ratio: 5:1; Field size: 14 x 17 in.
B.
mAs: 12; kV: 90; Film–screen system: 200; Grid ratio: 8:1; Field size: 14 x 17 in.
C.
mAs: 15; kV: 90; Film–screen system: 200; Grid ratio: 12:1; Field size: 11 x 14 in.
D.
mAs: 20; kV: 80; Film–screen system: 400; Grid ratio: 10:1; Field size: 8 x 10 in.

D.
mAs: 20; kV: 80; Film–screen system: 400; Grid ratio: 10:1; Field size: 8 x 10 in.

64

Which of the following will produce the greatest distortion?
A.
AP projection of the skull
B.
PA projection of the skull
C.
37° AP axial of the skull
D.
20° PA axial of the skull

C.
37° AP axial of the skull

65

Terms that refer to size distortion include

magnification

attenuation

elongation

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

66

The exposure factors used for a particular nongrid x-ray image were 300 mA, 4 ms, and 90 kV. Another image, using an 8:1 grid, is requested. Which of the following groups of factors is most appropriate?
A.
400 mA, 3 ms, 110 kV
B.
400 mA, 12 ms, 90 kV
C.
300 mA, 8 ms, 100 kV
D.
200 mA, 240 ms, 90 kV

B.
400 mA, 12 ms, 90 kV

67
card image

Figure 4–19 is representative of

Figure 4–19.

A.
the anode heel effect
B.
the line-focus principle
C.
the inverse-square law
D.
the reciprocity law

A.
the anode heel effect

68

Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of a 16:1 grid?

It absorbs more useful radiation than an 8:1 grid.

It has more centering latitude than an 8:1 grid.

It is used with higher-kilovoltage exposures than an 8:1 grid.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 3 only

69

In which of the following ways can higher radiographic contrast be obtained in abdominal radiography?
1. By using lower kilovoltage
2. By using a contrast medium
3. By limiting the field size

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

70

The line-focus principle expresses the relationship between
A.
the actual and the effective focal spot
B.
exposure given the IR and resulting density
C.
SID used and resulting density
D.
grid ratio and lines per inch

A.
the actual and the effective focal spot

71

An increase from 78 to 92 kVp will result in an increase in which of the following?

Latitude

Scale of grays

Optical density

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

72

Using fixed milliampere-seconds and variable kilovoltage technical factors, each centimeter increase in patient thickness requires what adjustment in kilovoltage?
A.
Increase 2 kV
B.
Decrease 2 kV
C.
Increase 4 kV
D.
Decrease 4 kV

A.
Increase 2 kV

73

An exposure was made using 600 mA and 18 ms. If the mA is changed to 400, which of the following exposure times would most closely approximate the original radiographic density?
A.
16 ms
B.
0.16 second
C.
27 ms
D.
0.27 second

C.
27 ms

74

What pixel size has a 2048 x 2048 matrix with an 80-cm FOV?
A.
0.04 mm
B.
0.08 mm
C.
0.2 mm
D.
0.4 mm

D.
0.4 mm

75

In electronic imaging, as digital image matrix size increases

pixel size decreases

resolution decreases

pixel depth decreases

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
2 and 3 only

A.
1 only

76

Which of the following would be appropriate cassette front material(s)?

Tungsten

Magnesium

Bakelite

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

77

OID is related to recorded detail in which of the following ways?
A.
Radiographic detail is directly related to OID.
B.
Radiographic detail is inversely related to OID.
C.
As OID increases, so does radiographic detail.
D.
OID is unrelated to radiographic detail.

B.
Radiographic detail is inversely related to OID.

78

In an AP abdomen radiograph taken at 105-cm SID during an IVU series, one renal shadow measures 9 cm in width. If the OID is 18 cm, what is the actual width of the kidney?
A.
5 cm
B.
7.5 cm
C.
11 cm
D.
18 cm

B.
7.5 cm

79

If 32 mAs and 50-speed screens were used to produce a particular radiographic density, what new mAs value would be required to produce the same density if the screen speed were changed to 400?
A.
4 mAs
B.
40 mAs
C.
175 mAs
D.
256 mAs

A.
4 mAs

80

Which of the following pathologic conditions would require an increase in exposure factors?
A.
Pneumoperitoneum
B.
Obstructed bowel
C.
Renal colic
D.
Ascites

D.
Ascites

81

Which of the following is (are) associated with subject contrast?

Patient thickness

Tissue density

Kilovoltage

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

82

If 300 mA has been selected for a particular exposure, what exposure time would be required to produce 60 mAs?
A.
1/60 second
B.
1/30 second
C.
1/10 second
D.
1/5 second

D.
1/5 second

83

According to the line-focus principle, an anode with a small angle provides

improved recorded detail.

improved heat capacity.

less heel effect.

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 and 2 only

84

Low-kilovoltage exposure factors usually are indicated for radiographic examinations using

water-soluble, iodinated media

a negative contrast agent

barium sulfate

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
3 only
D.
1 and 3 only

B.
1 and 2 only

85
card image

What grid ratio is represented in Figure 4–8?

Figure 4–8.

A.
3:1
B.
5:1
C.
10:1
D.
16:1

C.
10:1

86

A part whose width is 6 inches will be imaged at 44 inches SID. The part to be imaged lies 9 inches from the IR. What will be the magnification factor?
A.
1.25
B.
1.86
C.
4.9
D.
7.3

A.
1.25

87

Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of a 5:1 grid?

It allows some positioning latitude.

It is used with high-kilovoltage exposures.

It absorbs a high percentage of scattered radiation.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

88

The microswitch for controlling the amount of replenishment used in an automatic processor is located at the
A.
receiving bin
B.
crossover roller
C.
entrance roller
D.
replenishment pump

C.
entrance roller

89

A 15% increase in kVp accompanied by a 50% decrease in mAs will result in a(n)
A.
shorter scale of contrast.
B.
increase in exposure latitude.
C.
increase in radiographic density.
D.
decrease in recorded detail.

B.
increase in exposure latitude.

90

A dry laser printer is generally used when it is necessary to print digital images on film. This laser film is loaded under the following conditions
A.
daylight
B.
safelight with red filter
C.
safelight with amber filter
D.
total darkness

A.
daylight

91

Which of the following pathologic conditions would require an increase in exposure factors?
A.
Pneumoperitoneum
B.
Obstructed bowel
C.
Renal colic
D.
Ascites

D.
Ascites

92

What should be done to correct for magnification when using air-gap technique?
A.
Decrease OID
B.
Increase OID
C.
Decrease SID
D.
Increase SID

D.
Increase SID

93

In amorphous selenium flat-panel detectors, the term amorphous refers to a
A.
crystalline material having typical crystalline structure.
B.
crystalline material lacking typical crystalline structure.
C.
toxic crystalline material.
D.
homogeneous crystalline material.

B.
crystalline material lacking typical crystalline structure.

94

What pixel size has a 2,048 x 2,048 matrix with a 60-cm FOV?
A.
0.3 mm
B.
0.5 mm
C.
0.15 mm
D.
0.03 mm

A.
0.3 mm

95

An x-ray image of the ankle was made at 40-SID, 200 mA, 50 ms, 70 kV, 0.6 mm focal spot, and minimal OID. Which of the following modifications would result in the greatest increase in magnification?
A.
1.2 mm focal spot
B.
36-in. SID
C.
44-in. SID
D.
4-in. OID

D.
4-in. OID

96

Which of the following adult radiographic examinations usually require(s) use of a grid?

Ribs

Vertebrae

Shoulder

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

97

A particular radiograph was produced using 6 mAs and 110 kVp with an 8:1 ratio grid. The radiograph is to be repeated using a 16:1 ratio grid. What should be the new mAs?
A.
3
B.
6
C.
9
D.
12

C.
9

98

If 92 kV and 12 mAs were used for a particular abdominal exposure with single-phase equipment, what mAs would be required to produce a similar radiograph with three-phase, six-pulse equipment?
A.
36
B.
24
C.
8
D.
6

C.
8

99

Which of the following factors impact(s) recorded detail?

Focal-spot size

Subject motion

SOD

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

100

Recommended method(s) of minimizing motion unsharpness include

suspended respiration

short exposure time

patient instruction

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

101

Recommended method(s) of minimizing motion unsharpness include

suspended respiration

short exposure time

patient instruction

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

102

Geometric unsharpness will be least obvious

at long SIDs.

with small focal spots.

at the anode end of the image.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

103

If a radiograph were made of an average-size knee using automatic exposure control (AEC) and all three photocells were selected, the resulting radiograph would demonstrate
A.
excessive density.
B.
insufficient density.
C.
poor detail.
D.
adequate exposure.

B.
insufficient density.

104

Which of the following groups of exposure factors would be most appropriate to control involuntary motion?
A.
400 mA, 0.03 second
B.
200 mA, 0.06 second
C.
600 mA, 0.02 second
D.
100 mA, 0.12 second

C.
600 mA, 0.02 second

105

An exposure was made using 300 mA and 50 ms. If the exposure time is changed to 22 ms, which of the following milliamperage selections would most closely approximate the original radiographic density?
A.
300 mA
B.
400 mA
C.
600 mA
D.
700 mA

D.
700 mA

106

If a 4-inch collimated field is changed to a 14-inch collimated field, with no other changes, the radiographic image will possess
A.
more density/IR exposure.
B.
less density/IR exposure.
C.
more detail.
D.
less detail.

A.
more density/IR exposure.

107

Which of the following absorbers has the highest attenuation coefficient?
A.
Bone
B.
Muscle
C.
Fat
D.
Air

A.
Bone

108

An exposure was made using 600 mA, 0.04-s exposure, and 85 kVp. Each of the following changes will serve to decrease the radiographic density by one-half except change to
A.
1/50-s exposure
B.
72 kVp
C.
18 mAs
D.
300 mA

C.
18 mAs

109

Which of the following examinations might require the use of 120 kVp?
1. AP abdomen
2. Chest radiograph
3. Barium-filled stomach

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
2 and 3 only

D.
2 and 3 only

110
card image

The radiograph of the pelvis shown in Figure 6–7 is unacceptable because of

Figure 6–7.

From the American College of Radiology Learning File. Courtesy of the ACR.

A.
motion.
B.
inadequate penetration.
C.
scattered radiation fog.
D.
excessive density.

C.
scattered radiation fog.

111

Which of the following is most likely to produce a radiograph with a long scale of contrast?
A.
Increased photon energy
B.
Increased screen speed
C.
Increased mAs
D.
Increased SID

A.
Increased photon energy

112

As grid ratio is decreased,
A.
the scale of contrast becomes longer
B.
the scale of contrast becomes shorter
C.
radiographic density decreases
D.
radiographic distortion decreases

A.
the scale of contrast becomes longer

113

Which of the following will contribute to the production of longer-scale radiographic contrast?
1. An increase in kV
2. An increase in grid ratio
3. An increase in photon energy

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 3 only

114

A decrease from 90 to 77 kVp will result in a decrease in which of the following?

Wavelength

Scale of grays

Optical density

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

115

Shape distortion is influenced by the relationship between the

x-ray tube and the part to be imaged.

body part to be imaged and the IR.

IR and the x-ray tube.

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

116

Which of the following groups of technical factors will produce the least radiographic density?
A.
400 mA, 0.010 second, 94 kV, 100-speed screens
B.
500 mA, 0.008 second, 94 kV, 200-speed screens
C.
200 mA, 0.040 second, 94 kV, 50-speed screens
D.
100 mA, 0.020 second, 80 kV, 200-speed screens

D.
100 mA, 0.020 second, 80 kV, 200-speed screens

117
card image

Which of the lines indicated in Figure 4–2 represents the dynamic range offered by computed radiography/digital radiography (CR/DR)?

Courtesy FUJIFILM Medical Systems USA, Inc.

A.
Line A is representative of CR/DR.
B.
Line B is representative of CR/DR.
C.
Neither line is representative of CR/DR.
D.
Both lines are representative of CR/DR.

Figure 4–2.

A.
Line A is representative of CR/DR.

118

The variation in photon distribution between the anode and cathode ends of the x-ray tube is known as
A.
the line focus principle.
B.
the anode heel effect.
C.
the inverse square law.
D.
Bohr's theory.

B.
the anode heel effect.

119

The exposure factors of 300 mA, 0.07 second, and 95 kVp were used to produce a particular radiographic density and contrast. A similar radiograph can be produced using 500 mA, 80 kVp, and
A.
0.01 second.
B.
0.04 second.
C.
0.08 second.
D.
0.16 second.

C.
0.08 second.

120

The term differential absorption is related to

beam intensity

subject contrast

pathology

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

121

All the following have an impact on radiographic contrast except
A.
photon energy
B.
grid ratio
C.
OID
D.
focal-spot size

D.
focal-spot size

122

Exposures less than the minimum response time of an AEC may be required when

using high milliamperage

using fast film–screen combinations

examining large patients or body parts

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

123

If a radiograph exhibits insufficient density, this might be attributed to
1. inadequate kVp.
2. inadequate SID.
3. grid cutoff.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 3 only

124

Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of a 16:1 grid?
1. It absorbs a high percentage of scattered radiation.
2. It has little positioning latitude.
3. It is used with high-kVp exposures.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

125

A 3-inch object to be radiographed at a 36-inch SID lies 4 inches from the image recorder. What will be the image width?
A.
2.6 inches
B.
3.3 inches
C.
26 inches
D.
33 inches

B.
3.3 inches

126

An overall image density arising from factors other than the light or radiation used to expose the image is called
A.
fog.
B.
log-relative exposure.
C.
optical density.
D.
artifact.

A.
fog.

127

How would the introduction of a 6-in. OID affect image contrast?
A.
Contrast would be increased.
B.
Contrast would be decreased.
C.
Contrast would not change.
D.
The scale of contrast would not change.

A.
Contrast would be increased.

128

A grid is usually employed
1. when radiographing a large or dense body part.
2. when using high kilovoltage.
3. when less patient dose is required.

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 2 only

129
card image

The interaction between x-ray photons and matter illustrated in the figure below is most likely to occur
1. in structures having a high atomic number.

Reproduced with permission from Saia DA. Radiography: Program Review and Examination Preparation, 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.
A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3
2. during radiographic examination of the abdomen.
3. using high kV and low mAs exposure factors.

C.
2 and 3 only

130

Why is a very short exposure time essential in chest radiography?
A.
To avoid excessive focal-spot blur
B.
To maintain short-scale contrast
C.
To minimize involuntary motion
D.
To minimize patient discomfort

C.
To minimize involuntary motion

131

Recorded detail is directly related to
1. source-image distance (SID).
2. tube current.
3. focal spot size.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

132

If a radiograph exposed using a 12:1 ratio grid exhibits a loss of density at its lateral edges, it is probably because the
A.
SID was too great
B.
grid failed to move during the exposure
C.
x-ray tube was angled in the direction of the lead strips
D.
central ray was off-center

A.
SID was too great

133

Which of the following groups of exposure factors will produce the shortest scale of contrast?
A.
200 mA, 0.25 s, 70 kVp, 12:1 grid
B.
500 mA, 0.10 s, 90 kVp, 8:1 grid
C.
400 mA, 0.125 s, 80 kVp, 12:1 grid
D.
300 mA, 0.16 s, 70 kVp, 8:1 grid

A.
200 mA, 0.25 s, 70 kVp, 12:1 grid

134

Changes in milliampere-seconds can affect all the following except
A.
quantity of x-ray photons produced
B.
exposure rate
C.
optical density
D.
recorded detail

D.
recorded detail

135

Which of the following combinations is most likely to be associated with quantum mottle?
A.
Decreased milliampere-seconds, decreased SID, fast-speed screens
B.
Increased milliampere-seconds, decreased kilovoltage, slow-speed screens
C.
Decreased milliampere-seconds, increased kilovoltage, fast-speed screens
D.
Increased milliampere-seconds, increased SID, fast-speed screens

C.
Decreased milliampere-seconds, increased kilovoltage, fast-speed screens

136

An increase in kilovoltage will serve to
A.
produce a longer scale of contrast
B.
produce a shorter scale of contrast
C.
decrease the radiographic density
D.
decrease the production of scattered radiation

A.
produce a longer scale of contrast

137

Which of the following conditions would require an increase in exposure factors?
1. Congestive heart failure
2. Pleural effusion
3. Emphysema

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

138

Compared to a low ratio grid, a high ratio grid will
1. absorb more primary radiation.
2. absorb more scattered radiation.
3. allow more centering latitude.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

139

The quantity of scattered radiation reaching the IR can be reduced through the use of

a fast imaging system

an air gap

a stationary grid

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

140

How are mAs and radiographic density related in the process of image formation?
A.
mAs and radiographic density are inversely proportional
B.
mAs and radiographic density are directly proportional
C.
mAs and radiographic density are related to image unsharpness
D.
mAs and radiographic density are unrelated

B.
mAs and radiographic density are directly proportional

141

During film–screen imaging, the manifest image is formed
A.
on exposure of the film emulsion
B.
in the developer solution
C.
in the first half of the fixer process
D.
in the second half of the fixer process

B.
in the developer solution

142

Which of the following groups of exposure factors will produce the most radiographic density?
A.
100 mA, 50 ms
B.
200 mA, 40 ms
C.
400 mA, 70 ms
D.
600 mA, 30 ms

C.
400 mA, 70 ms

143

The absorption of useful radiation by a grid is called
A.
grid selectivity.
B.
grid cleanup.
C.
grid cutoff.
D.
latitude.

C.
grid cutoff

144

Geometric unsharpness is directly influenced by

OID

SOD

SID

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

145

The appearance of underexposure on an image created using a high-speed film–screen system can be caused by all the following except
A.
insufficient mAs
B.
insufficient kV
C.
insufficient SID
D.
insufficient development

C.
insufficient SID

146

To be suitable for use in intensifying screens, a phosphor should have which of the following characteristics?

High conversion efficiency

High x-ray absorption

High atomic number

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

147

Which of the following pathologic conditions are considered additive conditions with respect to selection of exposure factors?

Osteoma

Bronchiectasis

Pneumonia

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

148

Using a 48-in. SID, how much OID must be introduced to magnify an object two times?
A.
8-in. OID
B.
12-in. OID
C.
16-in. OID
D.
24-in. OID

D.
24-in. OID

149

Exposure rate will decrease with an increase in

SID

kilovoltage

focal-spot size

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

150

An increase in kilovoltage will have which of the following effects?

More scattered radiation will be produced.

The exposure rate will increase.

Radiographic contrast will increase.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

151

For which of the following examinations might the use of a grid not be necessary in an adult patient?
A.
Hip
B.
Knee
C.
Abdomen
D.
Lumbar spine

B.
Knee

152
card image

Which of the following groups of technical factors would be most appropriate for the radiographic examination shown in Figure 4–30?

Figure 4–30.

Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

A.
400 mA, 1/30 s, 72 kV
B.
300 mA, 1/50 s, 82 kV
C.
300 mA, 1/120 s, 94 kV
D.
50 mA, 1/4 s, 72 kV

A.
400 mA, 1/30 s, 72 kV

153

The primary source of scattered radiation is the
A.
patient.
B.
tabletop.
C.
x-ray tube.
D.
grid.

A.
patient.

154

The best way to control voluntary motion is
A.
immobilization of the part.
B.
careful explanation of the procedure.
C.
short exposure time.
D.
physical restraint.

B.
careful explanation of the procedure.

155

A particular milliampere-seconds value, regardless of the combination of milliamperes and time, will reproduce the same radiographic density. This is a statement of the
A.
line-focus principle
B.
inverse-square law
C.
reciprocity law
D.
law of conservation of energy

C.
reciprocity law

156

The radiographic accessory used to measure the thickness of body parts in order to determine optimal selection of exposure factors is the
A.
fulcrum
B.
caliper
C.
densitometer
D.
ruler

B.
caliper

157

An exposure was made at a 36-in. SID using 12 mAs and 75 kVp with a 400-speed imaging system and an 8:1 grid. A second radiograph is requested with improved recorded detail. Which of the following groups of technical factors will best accomplish this task?
A.
15 mAs, 12:1 grid, 75 kVp, 400-speed system, 36-in. SID
B.
15 mAs, 12:1 grid, 75 kVp, 400-speed system, 40-in. SID
C.
30 mAs, 12:1 grid, 75 kVp, 200-speed system, 40-in. SID
D.
12 mAs, 8:1 grid, 86 kVp, 200-speed system, 36-in. SID

C.
30 mAs, 12:1 grid, 75 kVp, 200-speed system, 40-in. SID

158

Which of the following has the greatest effect on radiographic density?
A.
Aluminum filtration
B.
Kilovoltage
C.
SID
D.
Scattered radiation

C.
SID

159

To produce a just perceptible increase in radiographic density, the radiographer must increase the
A.
mAs by 30%
B.
mAs by 15%
C.
kV by 15%
D.
kV by 30%

A.
mAs by 30%

160

How is SID related to exposure rate and radiographic density?
A.
As SID increases, exposure rate increases and radiographic density increases.
B.
As SID increases, exposure rate increases and radiographic density decreases.
C.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density increases.
D.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density decreases.

D.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density decreases.

161

All the following are related to recorded detail except
A.
motion
B.
focal-spot size
C.
OID
D.
scattered radiation

D.
scattered radiation

162

The radiographic accessory used to measure the thickness of body parts in order to determine optimum selection of exposure factors is the
A.
fulcrum.
B.
caliper.
C.
densitometer.
D.
ruler.

B.
caliper.

163

Which of the following will result if developer replenishment is inadequate?
A.
Images with excessively high contrast
B.
Images with excessively low contrast
C.
Images with excessively high density
D.
Dry, brittle films

B.
Images with excessively low contrast

164

A focal-spot size of 0.3 mm or smaller is essential for
A.
small-bone radiography
B.
magnification radiography
C.
tomography
D.
fluoroscopy

B.
magnification radiography

165

Exposure factors of 80 kVp and 8 mAs are used for a particular nongrid exposure. What should be the new milliampere-seconds value if an 8:1 grid is added?
A.
16 mAs
B.
24 mAs
C.
32 mAs
D.
40 mAs

C.
32 mAs

166

All the following affect the exposure rate of the primary beam except
A.
milliamperage
B.
kilovoltage
C.
distance
D.
field size

D.
field size

167

Decreasing field size from 14 x 17 in. to 8 x 10 in., with no other changes, will
A.
decrease radiographic density and decrease the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part
B.
decrease radiographic density and increase the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part
C.
increase radiographic density and increase the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part
D.
increase radiographic density and decrease the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part

A.
decrease radiographic density and decrease the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part

168

Which of the following contribute to the radiographic contrast present in the finished radiograph?

Tissue density

Pathology

Muscle development

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

169

Compared with a low-ratio grid, a high-ratio grid will

allow more centering latitude

absorb more scattered radiation

absorb more primary radiation

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

170

A grid usually is employed in which of the following circumstances?

When radiographing a large or dense body part

When using high kilovoltage

When a lower patient dose is required

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 2 only

171

A graphic diagram of signal values representing various densities within the part being imaged is called a
A.
processing algorithm
B.
DICOM
C.
histogram
D.
window

C.
histogram

172

Which of the following is (are) directly related to photon energy?

Kilovoltage

Milliamperes

Wavelength

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

173

The CR should be directed to the center of the part of greatest interest to avoid
A.
rotation distortion
B.
magnification
C.
foreshortening
D.
elongation

A.
rotation distortion

174

Which of the following matrix sizes is most likely to produce the best image resolution?
A.
128 x 128
B.
512 x 512
C.
1,024 x 1,024
D.
2,048 x 2,048

D.
2,048 x 2,048

175

A shoulder was imaged using 300 mA, 7 ms, 70 kVp, 40-inch SID, 1.2-mm focal spot, and 100 speed screen/film combination. Which of the following changes, made to compensate for changes in optical density, would result in decreased production/visualization of blur?

1. Use of a 0.6-mm focal spot

2. Use of a 50-inch SID

3. Screens with higher intensification factor
A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

176

If 84 kV and 8 mAs were used for a particular abdominal exposure with single-phase equipment, what milliampere-seconds value would be required to produce a similar radiograph with three-phase, 12-pulse equipment?
A.
24 mAs
B.
16 mAs
C.
8 mAs
D.
4 mAs

D.
4 mAs

177

Of the following groups of exposure factors, which will produce the most radiographic density?
A.
400 mA, 30 ms, 72-in. SID
B.
200 mA, 30 ms, 36-in. SID
C.
200 mA, 60 ms, 36-in. SID
D.
400 mA, 60 ms, 72-in. SID

C.
200 mA, 60 ms, 36-in. SID

178

Which of the following conditions will require an increase in x-ray photon energy/penetration?
A.
Fibrosarcoma
B.
Osteomalacia
C.
Paralytic ileus
D.
Ascites

D.
Ascites

179

A compensating filter is used to
A.
absorb the harmful photons that contribute only to patient dose
B.
even out widely differing tissue densities
C.
eliminate much of the scattered radiation
D.
improve fluoroscopy

B.
even out widely differing tissue densities

180

High-kilovoltage exposure factors are usually required for radiographic examinations using
1. water-soluble, iodinated media.
2. a negative contrast agent.
3. barium sulfate.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
3 only
D.
1 and 3 only

C.
3 only

181

If 400 mA, 10 ms, and 90 kV were used for a particular exposure using three-phase, 12-pulse equipment, which of the following exposure changes would be most appropriate for use on single-phase equipment to produce a similar image?
A.
Use 200 mA
B.
Use 20 mAs
C.
Use 70 kV
D.
Use 0.02 second

D.
Use 0.02 second

182

Underexposure of a radiograph can be caused by all the following except insufficient
A.
milliamperage (mA)
B.
exposure time
C.
Kilovoltage
D.
SID

D.
SID

183

Recorded detail can be improved by decreasing

the SID

the OID

patient/part motion

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

184

If 85 kV and 20 mAs were used for a particular abdominal exposure with single-phase equipment, what mAs would be required to produce a similar radiograph with 3-phase, 12-pulse equipment.
A.
40
B.
25
C.
20
D.
10

D.
10

185

If 82 kVp, 300 mA, and 0.05 second were used for a particular exposure using 3-phase, 12-pulse equipment, what mAs would be required, using single-phase equipment, to produce a similar radiograph?
A.
7.5
B.
20
C.
30
D.
50

C.
30

186

Which of the following affect(s) both the quantity and the quality of the primary beam?

Half-value layer (HVL)

Kilovoltage (kV)

Milliamperage (mA)

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 2 only

187

Methods that help to reduce the production of scattered radiation include using

compression

beam restriction

a grid

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 and 2 only

188

If a duration of 0.05 second was selected for a particular exposure, what milliamperage would be necessary to produce 30 mAs?
A.
900
B.
600
C.
500
D.
300

B.
600

189

Which of the following is (are) classified as rare earth phosphors?

Lanthanum oxybromide

Gadolinium oxysulfide

Cesium iodide

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

190

In comparison with 60 kV, 80 kV will

permit greater exposure latitude

produce more scattered radiation

produce shorter-scale contrast

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
2 and 3 only

C.
1 and 2 only

191

A satisfactory radiograph was made without a grid using a 72-in. SID and 8 mAs. If the distance is changed to 40 in. and an 12:1 ratio grid is added, what should be the new milliampere-seconds value?
A.
9.5 mAs
B.
12 mAs
C.
21 mAs
D.
26 mAs

B.
12 mAs

192

Which of the following examinations might require the use of 70 kV?

AP abdomen

Chest radiograph

Barium-filled stomach

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
2 and 3 only

A.
1 only

193

Recorded detail is directly related to

SID.

tube current.

focal-spot size.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

194

Several types of exposure timers may be found on x-ray equipment. Which of the following types of timers functions to accurately duplicate radiographic densities?
A.
Synchronous
B.
Impulse
C.
Electronic
D.
Phototimer

D.
Phototimer

195

When involuntary motion must be considered, the exposure time may be cut in half if the kilovoltage is
A.
doubled
B.
increased by 15%
C.
increased by 25%
D.
increased by 35%

B.
increased by 15%

196

Greater latitude is available to the radiographer in which of the following circumstances?

Using high-kV technical factors

Using a low-ratio grid

Using low-kV technical factors

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
3 only

B.
1 and 2 only

197

A positive contrast agent

absorbs x-ray photons

results in a dark area on the radiograph

is composed of elements having low atomic number

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

198

Which of the following quantities of filtration is most likely to be used in mammography?
A.
0.5 mm Mo
B.
1.5 mm Al
C.
1.5 mm Cu
D.
2.0 mm Cu

A.
0.5 mm Mo

199

An exposure was made of a part using 300 mA and 0.06 second with a 200-speed film–screen combination. An additional radiograph is requested using a 400-speed system to reduce motion unsharpness. Using 400 mA, all other factors remaining constant, what should be the new exposure time?
A.
5 ms
B.
11 ms
C.
22 ms
D.
44 ms

C.
22 ms

200

Because of the anode heel effect, the intensity of the x-ray beam is greatest along the
A.
path of the central ray
B.
anode end of the beam
C.
cathode end of the beam
D.
transverse axis of the IR

C.
cathode end of the beam

201

Which of the following groups of exposure factors will produce the longest scale of contrast?
A.
200 mA, 0.25 second, 70 kVp, 12:1 grid
B.
500 mA, 0.10 second, 90 kVp, 8:1 grid
C.
400 mA, 0.125 second, 80 kVp, 12:1 grid
D.
300 mA, 0.16 second, 70 kVp, 8:1 grid

B.
500 mA, 0.10 second, 90 kVp, 8:1 grid

202

In which of the following examinations should 70 kV not be exceeded?
A.
Upper GI (UGI)
B.
Barium enema (BE)
C.
Intravenous urogram (IVU)
D.
Chest

C.
Intravenous urogram (IVU)

203

The squeegee assembly in an automatic processor

functions to remove excess solution from films

is located near the crossover rollers

helps establish the film's rate of travel

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 2 only

204

How is source-to-image distance (SID) related to exposure rate and radiographic density?
A.
As SID increases, exposure rate increases and radiographic density increases.
B.
As SID increases, exposure rate increases and radiographic density decreases.
C.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density increases.
D.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density decreases.

D.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density decreases.

205

If 300 mA has been selected for a particular exposure, what exposure time should be selected to produce 18 mAs?
A.
40 ms
B.
60 ms
C.
400 ms
D.
600 ms

B.
60 ms

206

The direction of electron travel in the x-ray tube is
A. filament to cathode
B. cathode to anode
C. anode to focus
D. anode to cathode

B. cathode to anode

207

Exposure factors of 90 kV and 3 mAs are used for a particular nongrid exposure. What should be the new milliampere-seconds (mAs) value if a 12:1 grid is added?
A. 86
B. 9
C. 12
D. 15

D. 15

208

The attenuation of x-ray photons is not influenced by
pathology
effective atomic number
photon quantity
A. 1 only
B. 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

B. 3 only

209

The functions of automatic beam limitation devices include
reducing the production of scattered radiation
increasing the absorption of scattered radiation
changing the quality of the x-ray beam
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. 1 and 2 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

A. 1 only

210

An anteroposterior (AP) radiograph of the femur was made using 300 mA, 0.03 second, 76 kV, 40-in. SID, 1.2-mm focal spot, and a 400-speed film–screen system. With all other factors remaining constant, which of the following exposure times would be required to maintain radiographic density at a 44-in. SID using 500 mA?
A. 12 ms
B. 22 ms
C. 30 ms
D. 36 ms

B. 22 ms

211

If 85 kVp, 400 mA, and ? s were used for a particular exposure using single-phase equipment, which of the following milliamperage or time values would be required, all other factors being constant, to produce a similar density using three-phase, 12-pulse equipment?
A. 200 mA
B. 600 mA
C. 0.125 s
D. 0.25 s

A. 200 mA

212

Factor(s) that can be used to regulate radiographic density is (are)
1. milliamperage.
2. exposure time.
3. kilovoltage.

A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. 1 and 2 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

D. 1, 2, and 3

213

Which of the following groups of exposure factors would be most appropriate for a sthenic adult IVU?
A. 300 mA, 0.02 s, 72 kVp
B. 300 mA, 0.01 s, 82 kVp
C. 150 mA, 0.01 s, 94 kVp
D. 100 mA, 0.03 s, 82 kVp

A. 300 mA, 0.02 s, 72 kVp

214

The use of which of the following is (are) essential in magnification radiography?
High-ratio grid
Fractional focal spot
Direct exposure technique
A. 1 onlyB. 2 onlyC. 1 and 3 onlyD. 1, 2, and 3

B. 2 only

215

Which of the following are methods of limiting the production of scattered radiation?
Using moderate ratio grids
Using the prone position for abdominal examinations
Restricting the field size to the smallest practical size
A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

C. 2 and 3 only

216

In a PA projection of the chest being used for cardiac evaluation, the heart measures 15.2 cm between its widest points. If the magnification factor is known to be 1.3, what is the actual diameter of the heart?
A. 9.7 cmB. 11.7 cmC. 19.7 cmD. 20.3 cm

B. 11.7 cm

217

Which of the following can affect histogram appearance?
Centering accuracy
Positioning accuracy
Processing algorithm accuracy
A. 1 onlyB. 1 and 2 onlyC. 2 and 3 onlyD. 1, 2, and 3

D. 1, 2, and 3

218

In digital imaging, as the size of the image matrix increases,
FOV increases
pixel size decreases
spatial resolution increases
A. 1 onlyB. 1 and 2 onlyC. 2 and 3 onlyD. 1, 2, and 3

C. 2 and 3 only

219

Which combination of exposure factors will most likely contribute to producing the longest-scale contrast?
Film-Screen Grid Field
mAs kVp System Ratio Size
(A) 10 70 400 5:1 14 x 17 inches
(B) 12 90 200 8:1 14 x 17 inches
(C) 15 90 200 12:1 8 x 10 inches
(D) 20 80 400 10:1 11 x 14 inches

A. Group AB. Group BC. Group CD. Group D

B. Group B

220

A satisfactory radiograph of the abdomen was made at a 38-in. SID using 400 mA, 60-ms exposure, and 80 kV. If the distance is changed to 42 in., what new exposure time would be required?
A. 25 msB. 50 msC. 73 msD. 93 ms

C. 73 ms

221

A particular radiograph was produced using 12 mAs and 85 kV with a 16:1 ratio grid. The radiograph is to be repeated using an 8:1 ratio grid. What should be the new milliampere-seconds value?
A. 3B. 6C. 8D. 10

C. 8

222

When the collimated field must extend past the edge of the body, allowing primary radiation to strike the tabletop, as in a lateral lumbar spine radiograph, what may be done to prevent excessive radiographic density owing to undercutting?
A. Reduce the milliampere-seconds.B. Reduce the kilovoltage.C. Use a shorter SID.D. Use lead rubber to absorb tabletop primary radiation.

D. Use lead rubber to absorb tabletop primary radiation.

223

A lateral radiograph of the cervical spine was made at 40 in. using 300 mA and 0.03 second exposure. If it is desired to increase the distance to 72 in., what should be the new milliampere (mA) setting, all other factors remaining constant?
A. 400 mAB. 800 mAC. 1000 mAD. 1200 mA

C. 1000 mA

224

Which of the following focal-spot sizes should be employed for magnification radiography?
A. 0.2 mmB. 0.6 mmC. 1.2 mmD. 2.0 mm

A. 0.2 mm

225

An AP radiograph of the femur was made using 300 mA, 0.03 second, 76 kV, 40-in. SID, 1.2-mm focal spot, and a 400-speed film–screen system. With all other factors remaining constant, which of the following exposure times would be required to maintain radiographic density using 87 kV, a 200-speed film–screen system, and the addition of a 12:1 grid?
A. 0.15 secondB. 0.20 secondC. 0.4 secondD. 0.6 second

A. 0.15 second

226

Which of the following is performed to check the correctness of the developing parameters?
A.
Densitometry
B.
A thorough cleaning of rollers
C.
A warm-up procedure
D.
Sensitometry

D.
Sensitometry

227

An increase in kilovoltage with appropriate compensation of milliampere-seconds will result in

increased exposure latitude.

higher contrast.

increased density.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1 and 3 only

A.
1 only

228

Which of the following groups of exposure factors would be most effective in eliminating prominent pulmonary vascular markings in the RAO position of the sternum?
A.
500 mA, 1/30 s, 70 kV
B.
200 mA, 0.04 second, 80 kV
C.
300 mA, 1/10 s, 80 kV
D.
25 mA, 7/10 s, 70 kV

D.
25 mA, 7/10 s, 70 kV

229

Which of the following factors is/are related to grid efficiency?

Grid ratio

Number of lead strips per inch

Amount of scatter transmitted through the grid

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

230

Which one of the following is (are) used to control the production of scattered radiation?

Collimators

Optimal kV

Use of grids

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

231

Types of shape distortion include

magnification

elongation

foreshortening

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

232

If 300 mA has been selected for a particular exposure, what exposure time would be required to produce 6 mAs?
A.
5 ms
B.
10 ms
C.
15 ms
D.
20 ms

D.
20 ms

233

Central ray angulation may be required for

magnification of anatomic structures

foreshortening or self-superimposition

superimposition of overlying structures

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

234

An automatic exposure control (AEC) device can operate on which of the following principles?

A photomultiplier tube charged by a fluorescent screen

A parallel-plate ionization chamber charged by x-ray photons

Motion of magnetic fields inducing current in a conductor

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 2 only

235

Exposure factors of 110 kVp and 12 mAs are used with an 8:1 grid for a particular exposure. What should be the new mAs if a 12:1 grid is substituted?
A.
3
B.
9
C.
15
D.
18

C.
15

236
card image

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding Figure 7–10?

Figure 7–10.

Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

Excessive kilovoltage was used.

High contrast is demonstrated.

Insufficient penetration is evident.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

237

Radiographic contrast is a result of

differential tissue absorption

emulsion characteristics

proper regulation of milliampere-seconds

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

238

Practice(s) that enable the radiographer to reduce the exposure time required for a particular image include

use of a higher milliamperage

use of a higher kilovoltage

use of a faster film–screen combination

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

239

Decreasing field size from 14 x 17 into 8 x 10 inches will
A.
decrease radiographic density and decrease the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part.
B.
decrease radiographic density and increase the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part.
C.
increase radiographic density and increase the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part.
D.
increase radiographic density and decrease the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part.

A.
decrease radiographic density and decrease the amount of scattered radiation generated within the part.

240

Which of the following may be used to reduce the effect of scattered radiation on a finished radiograph?

Grids

Collimators

Compression bands

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

241

Cassette-front material can be made of which of the following?

Carbon fiber

Magnesium

Lead

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

242

A technique chart should include which of the following information?

Recommended SID

Grid ratio

Screen–film combination

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

243

If 40 mAs and a 200-speed screen–film system were used for a particular exposure, what new milliampere-seconds value would be required to produce the same density if the screen–film system were changed to 800 speed?
A.
10
B.
20
C.
80
D.
160

A.
10

244

The exposure factors of 400 mA, 17 ms, and 82 kV produce a milliampere-seconds value of
A.
2.35
B.
6.8
C.
23.5
D.
68

B.
6.8

245

The advantage(s) of high-kilovoltage chest radiography is (are) that

exposure latitude is increased

it produces long-scale contrast

it reduces patient dose

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

246

A radiograph made using 300 mA, 0.1 second, and 75 kV exhibits motion unsharpness but otherwise satisfactory technical quality. The radiograph will be repeated using a shorter exposure time. Using 86 kV and 400 mA, what should be the new exposure time?
A.
25 ms
B.
37 ms
C.
50 ms
D.
75 ms

B.
37 ms

247

The term latitude describes

an emulsion's ability to record a range of densities

the degree of error tolerated with given exposure factors

the conversion efficiency of a given intensifying screen

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

248

Of the following groups of exposure factors, which will produce the shortest scale of radiographic contrast?
A.
500 mA, 0.040 second, 70 kV
B.
100 mA, 0.100 second, 80 kV
C.
200 mA, 0.025 second, 92 kV
D.
700 mA, 0.014 second, 80 kV

A.
500 mA, 0.040 second, 70 kV

249

What type of x-ray imaging uses an area beam and a photostimulable phosphor as the IR?
A.
Traditional radiography
B.
Computed radiography
C.
Digital radiography
D.
Cineradiography

B.
Computed radiography

250

A technique chart should be prepared for each AEC x-ray unit and should contain which of the following information for each type of examination?

Photocell(s) used

Optimum kilovoltage

Backup time

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

251

X-ray photon beam attenuation is influenced by
1. tissue type.
2. subject thickness.
3. photon quality.

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

252

A satisfactory radiograph of the abdomen was made at a 42-inch SID using 300 mA, 0.06-second exposure, and 80 kVp. If the distance is changed to 38 inches, what new exposure time would be required?
A.
0.02 second
B.
0.05 second
C.
0.12 second
D.
0.15 second

B.
0.05 second

253

Better resolution is obtained with
A.
high SNR.
B.
low SNR.
C.
windowing.
D.
smaller matrix.

A.
high SNR.

254

In radiography of a large abdomen, which of the following is (are) effective way(s) to minimize the amount of scattered radiation reaching the image receptor (IR)?

Use of close collimation

Use of low mAs

Use of a low-ratio grid

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

255

With all other factors constant, as digital image matrix size increases,
1. pixel size decreases.
2. resolution increases.
3. pixel size increases.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
2 and 3 only

C.
1 and 2 only

256

Compression of the breast during mammographic imaging improves the technical quality of the image because

geometric blurring is decreased

less scattered radiation is produced

patient motion is reduced

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

257

An exposure was made using 8 mAs and 60 kV. If the kilovoltage was changed to 70 to obtain longer-scale contrast, what new milliampere-seconds value is required to maintain density?
A.
2
B.
4
C.
16
D.
32

B.
4

258

Which of the following devices is used to overcome severe variation in patient anatomy or tissue density, providing more uniform radiographic density?
A.
Compensating filter
B.
Grid
C.
Collimator
D.
Intensifying screen

A.
Compensating filter

259

If 0.05 second was selected for a particular exposure, what mA would be necessary to produce 15 mAs?
A.
900
B.
600
C.
500
D.
300

D.
300

260

Which of the following is likely to contribute to the radiographic contrast present on the finished radiograph?

Atomic number of tissues radiographed

Any pathologic processes

Degree of muscle development

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

261

The effect described as differential absorption is

responsible for radiographic contrast

a result of attenuating characteristics of tissue

minimized by the use of a high peak kilovoltage

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

262

A decrease from 200 to 100 mA will result in a decrease in which of the following?

Wavelength

Exposure rate

Beam intensity

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

263

The steeper the straight-line portion of a characteristic curve for a particular film, the

slower is the film speed

higher is the film contrast

greater is the exposure latitude

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
2 only

264

Which of the following terms/units is used to express the resolution of a diagnostic image?
A.
Line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm)
B.
Speed
C.
Latitude
D.
Kiloelectronvolts (keV)

A.
Line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm)

265

A satisfactory radiograph was made without a grid, using a 72-inch SID and 8 mAs. If the distance is changed to 40 inches and an 8:1 ratio grid is added, what should be the new mAs?
A.
10 mAs
B.
18 mAs
C.
20 mAs
D.
32 mAs

A.
10 mAs

266

Which of the following chemicals is used in the production of radiographic film emulsion?
A.
Sodium sulfite
B.
Potassium bromide
C.
Silver halide
D.
Chrome alum

C.
Silver halide

267

An increase in the kilovoltage applied to the x-ray tube increases the

percentage of high-energy photons produced.

beam intensity.

patient absorption.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

268

What is the single most important factor controlling size distortion?
A.
Tube, part, IR alignment
B.
IR dimensions
C.
SID
D.
OID

D.
OID

269

Combinations of milliamperage and exposure time that produce a particular milliampere-seconds value will produce identical radiographic density. This statement is an expression of the
A.
inverse-square law
B.
line-focus principle
C.
reciprocity law
D.
D log E curve

C.
reciprocity law

270

An increase in the kilovoltage applied to the x-ray tube increases the

x-ray wavelength

exposure rate

patient absorption

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
2 only

271

The major function of filtration is to reduce
A.
image noise.
B.
scattered radiation.
C.
operator dose.
D.
patient dose.

D.
patient dose.

272

Which of the following methods can be used effectively to decrease differential absorption, providing a longer scale of contrast in the diagnostic range?

Using high peak kilovoltage and low milliampere-seconds factors

Using compensating filtration

Using factors that increase the photoelectric effect

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

273

Which of the following could be used to improve recorded detail?

1. Slower screen/film combination

2. Smaller focal-spot size

3. Correct photocell selection
A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

274

Which of the following is most likely to occur as a result of using a 30-in. SID with a 14 x 17 in. IR to radiograph a fairly homogeneous structure?
A.
Production of quantum mottle
B.
Density variation between opposite ends of the IR
C.
Production of scatter radiation fog
D.
Excessively short-scale contrast

B.
Density variation between opposite ends of the IR

275

Which of the following combinations will result in the most scattered radiation reaching the image receptor?
A.
Using more mAs and compressing the part
B.
Using more mAs and a higher ratio grid
C.
Using fewer mAs and more kVp
D.
Using more mAs and less kVp

C.
Using fewer mAs and more kVp

276

Which of the following is most likely to produce a high-quality image?
A.
Small image matrix
B.
High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
C.
Large pixel size
D.
Low resolution

B.
High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)

277

Distortion can be caused by

tube angle

the position of the organ or structure within the body

the radiographic positioning of the part

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

278

Which of the following is most likely to result from the introduction of a grid to a particular radiographic examination?
A.
Increased patient dose and increased contrast
B.
Decreased patient dose and decreased contrast
C.
Increased patient dose and decreased contrast
D.
Decreased patient dose and increased contrast

A.
Increased patient dose and increased contrast

279

Which of the following can affect radiographic contrast?
1. Processing
2. Pathology
3. OID

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

280

All other factors remaining the same, if a 14 x 17 in. field is collimated to a 4-in.-square field, the radiographic image will demonstrate
A.
more density
B.
less density
C.
more detail
D.
less detail

B.
less density

281
card image

http://radrevieweasy.com/loadBinary.aspx?name=saia8&filename=saia8_c007f133b.jpg

Both radiographic images shown in Figure 7–14 were made of the same subject using identical exposure factors. Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) these images?

From the American College of Radiology Learning File. Courtesy of the ACR.

Image A demonstrates less optical density because a shorter SID was used.

Image A demonstrates more optical density because the subject was turned PA.

Image B demonstrates more optical density because a shorter SID was used.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
3 only
D.
1 and 2 only

Figure 7–14.

C.
3 only

282

Exposure factors of 100 kVp and 6 mAs are used with a 6:1 grid for a particular exposure. What should be the new milliampere-seconds value if a 12:1 grid is substituted?
A.
7.5 mAs
B.
10 mAs
C.
13 mAs
D.
18 mAs

B.
10 mAs