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Unit 2 test

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created 3 years ago by julicarr
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1

4) All of the following parts of the GI tract aid in the digestion of fiber, except:

a. mouth
b. large intestine
c. stomach
d. small intestine

c. stomach

2

4) The process of converting protein to glucose is called:

gluconeogenesis

3

4) Adolescents who drink about two cans of sugar-sweetened soft drinks daily consume ________ more kcalories a day than teens who don't.

400

4

4) Which of the following statements about diabetes is true?

a. Type 1 diabetes is more common than type 2 diabetes.
b. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce insulin.
c. Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with a healthy body weight.
d. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces a type of insulin that is abnormal and thus not recognized by the body.
e. Concentrated sweets, such as candy, are strictly excluded from the diabetic diet.

b. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce insulin.

5

4)Harmful effects of excessive fiber intake may include all of the following except:

a. abdominal discomfort
b. gas
c. obstruction of GI tract
d. diarrhea
e. diverticulosis

e. diverticulosis

6

4) ________ is the sweetest of the sugars.

a. lactose
b. sucrose
c. fructose
d. galactose
e. glucose

c. fructose

7

4) When blood glucose levels fall, which hormone is secreted by the pancreas to stimulate the liver to break down its glycogen?

a. serotonin
b. insulin
c. glucagon
d. epinephrine
e. norepinephrine

c. glucagon

8

Which sugar can partially be absorbed in the mouth?

a. galactose
b. maltose
c. sucrose
d. lactose
e. glucose

e. glucose

9

4) ________ contributes about half of the added sugars in the U.S. food supply and accounts for about 10 percent of the average energy intake in the United States.

a. Glucose
b. Fructose
c. Lactose
d. Sucrose
e. Maltose

b. Fructose

10

4) Some studies have shown that selecting foods with a low glycemic index may improve all of the following, except:

a. blood lipids
b. colon cancer risk
c. weight management
d. glucose control

b. colon cancer risk

11

4) Which of the following items contains the most lactose?

a. 1 cup of cottage cheese
b. 1 cup of sherbet
c. ½ cup of low-fat yogurt
d. 1 oz. of chocolate candy
e. 1 cup of ice cream

e. 1 cup of ice cream

12

4) Which of the following protein foods also provides a significant amount of carbohydrate to the diet?

a. nuts
b. chicken
c. cheese
d. hamburger
e. tuna

a. nuts

13

4) Which of the following artificial sweeteners contains a warning for those with PKU?

a. saccharin
b. aspartame
c. stevia
d. sucralose
e. neotame

b. aspartame

14

4) Diets rich in fiber may provide all of the following health benefits, except:

a. reduction in blood pressure
b. reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes
c. prevention or alleviation of constipation
d. maintenance of healthy body weight
e. prevention or alleviation of ulcers

e. prevention or alleviation of ulcers

15

4) Which location along the GI tract is responsible for most of the work of carbohydrate digestion?

a. mouth
b. stomach
c. small intestine
d. large intestine

c. small intestine

16

4) When blood glucose falls, the liver cells break down glycogen through ________ reactions into single molecules of glucose and release them into the bloodstream.

c. hydrolysis

17

4) Which of the following carbohydrates is not a monosaccharide?
a. fructose
b. sucrose
c. galactose
d. glucose

b. sucrose

18

4) The DRI recommendation for fiber intake is:

25-35 grams per day

19

4) ________ is a polysaccharide, but not a dietary source of carbohydrate.

a. maltose
b. fructose
c. fiber
d. starch
e. glycogen

e. glycogen

20

4) By following the USDA Food Pattern and making careful food selections, a typical adult can obtain all the needed nutrients within an allowance of about ________ kcalories.

1500

21

4) Which of the following food items is not a source of soluble fiber?

a. seaweed
b. oats
c. brussels sprouts
d. apples
e. black-eyed peas

c. brussels sprouts

22

4) Which of the following statements regarding lactose intolerance is false?

a. People who consume no milk products must take care to meet riboflavin, vitamin D, and calcium needs.
b. Total elimination of milk products is necessary for those who are lactose intolerant.
c. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea.
d. Lactase activity declines with age.
e. Lactose intolerance is greatest among native North Americans and Southeast Asians.

b. Total elimination of milk products is necessary for those who are lactose intolerant.

23

4) Which of the following statements regarding glucose is incorrect?

a. Glucose is the unit that almost exclusively makes up starch and glycogen.
b. Glucose is an essential energy source for all the body's activities.
c. Glucose is also known as blood sugar.
d. Glucose is one of the two sugars in every disaccharide except maltose.

d. Glucose is one of the two sugars in every disaccharide except maltose.

24

4) All of the following locations in the body store glycogen, except:

a. muscles
b. kidneys
c. liver
d. brain

b. kidneys

25

4) Which of the following beverages may be helpful in protecting against dental caries?

a. soft drinks
b. orange juice
c. coffee
d. milk
e. sport drinks

d. milk

26

4) Which of the following is an herbal product that has recently been granted the status of "generally recognized as safe" and will be used as an alternative sweetener in the United States?

a. stevia
b. sorbitol
c. sucralose
d. saccharin
e. xylitol

a. stevia

27

4) During which period in life is lactase activity the greatest?

a. infancy
b. early adulthood
c. childhood
d. late adulthood
e. adolescence

a. infancy

28

4) Which of the following monosaccharide combinations makes up the disaccharide lactose?

a. glucose + fructose
b. glucose + galactose
c. glucose + glucose
d. fructose + fructose
e. fructose + galactose

b. glucose + galactose

29

5) Which of the following fatty acids is an essential fatty acid?

a. arachidonic acid
b. linoleic acid
c. arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid only
d. linoleic acid and linolenic acid only
e. linolenic acid
f. eicosapntaenoic acid and linoleic acid only
g. eicosapentaenoic acid

d. linoleic acid and linolenic acid only

30

5) Which of the following statements is false regarding lipid chemistry?

a. Fatty acids made up of 20 carbons are the most common in foods.
b. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids.
c. Fatty acids come in long chains made up of an even number of carbon atoms.
d. Triglycerides are made up of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids.

a. Fatty acids made up of 20 carbons are the most common in foods.

31

5) Which type of fat is most often implicated in raising LDL cholesterol levels?

saturated fats

32

5) In the body, trans-fatty acids that derive from hydrogenation behave more like ________ fats.

saturated

33

5) Fats help add all of the following to foods, except:

a. palatability
b. aromas
c. flavor
d. bulk
e. texture

d. bulk

34

5) Chylomicrons bypass which organ at first as they travel through the lymphatic system after being released from the intestinal cells?

a. pancreas
b. heart
c. kidneys
d. stomach
e. liver

e. liver

35

5) Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can:

a. increase inflammation for healing
b. help lower blood pressure
c. cause irregular heartbeats
d. increase blood clot formation

b. help lower blood pressure

36

5) Which of the following is not a role of lipids in the body?

a. maintenance of cell membranes
b. provision of energy
c. insulation against temperature extremes
d. protection against shock
e. provision of materials for hair and nail creation

e. provision of materials for hair and nail creation

37

5) The excretion of bile in the feces helps to reduce ________ .

a. blood cholesterol
b. phospholipid absorption
c. fat absorption
d. chylomicron formation

a. blood cholesterol

38

5) The key dietary principle for fat is ________ .

a. elimination
b. deprivation
c. abundance
d. moderation

d. moderation (duh)

39

5) Which of the following elements is not part of various lipid compounds?

a. carbon
b. nitrogen
c. hydrogen
d. oxygen

b. nitrogen

40

5) Which of the following is not a major source of trans fats?

a. eggs
b. cookies
c. doughnuts
d. margarine
e. snack chips

a. eggs

41

5) ________ is the nation's number one killer of adults.

Heart disease

42

5) Which of the following is not a sterol compound found in the body?

a. lecithin
b. vitamin D
c. cortisol
d. cholesterol
e. testosterone

a. lecithin

43

5) Fatty acids differ from one another according to all of the following characteristics, except:

a. location of double bonds
b. degree of saturation
c. all of these choices
d. length of their chains

c. all of these choices

44

5) Food sources of the phospholipid, lecithin, include all of the following, except:

a. soybeans
b. milk
c. liver
d. eggs
e. peanuts

b. milk

45

5) Which of the following oils is not a major source of monounsaturated fats?

a. canola oil
b. peanut oil
c. olive oil
d. corn oil

d. corn oil

46

5) Monounsaturated fatty acids help to protect against heart disease by all of the following except:

a. increasing blood pressure
b. interfering with the inflammatory response
c. lowering blood-clotting factors
d. providing phytochemicals that act as antioxidants
e. lowering LDL cholesterol

a. increasing blood pressure

47

5) One pound of body fat is equal to ________ kcalories.

3500

48

5) All of the following factors help raise HDL levels, except:

a. physical activity
b. phytochemicals
c. moderate alcohol consumption
d. insoluble dietary fibers

d. insoluble dietary fibers

49

5) The DRI and Dietary Guidelines recommend a diet that is low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and provides ________ percent of the daily energy intake from fat.

20-35

50

5) The omega number indicates the ________ .

a. position of the first double bond in a fatty acid

51

5) Fats are ________ , meaning that they tend to separate from the watery fluids of the GI tract.

hydrophobic

52

5) This lipoprotein is responsible for removing cholesterol from cells and carrying the cholesterol back to the liver for recycling or disposal.

c. high-density lipoproteins (HDL)

53

5) Which of the following is not a role of phospholipids?
a. acting as a cofactor for certain fat-soluble vitamins
b. helping fat-soluble substances pass in and out of cells
c. acting as an emulsifier
d. being a part of cell membranes

a. acting as a cofactor for certain fat-soluble vitamins

54

5) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 fatty acids important for all of the following except:

a. cognitive development
b. normal growth
c. prevention of cancer
d. treatment of heart disease

c. prevention of cancer

55

5) Of the following locations, which one is the site of the greatest amount of fat digestion?

a. small intestine
b. mouth
c. large intestine
d. stomach

a. small intestine

56

5) Emulsifiers help mix fats with ________ .

water

57

5) Which of the following is an advantage of hydrogenation?

a. absence of requirements to report hydrogenated fats on nutrition facts labels
b. adding flavor to foods
c. prolonged shelf life of fats
d. alteration of food texture by making solid fats more liquid like vegetable oils
e. making processed foods more similar to unprocessed foods

c. prolonged shelf life of fats

58

5) High ________ cholesterol is associated with a high risk of heart attack.

low-density lipoproteins (LDL)

59

6) Digestibility for most plant proteins is ________% .

c. 70-90%

60

6) During times of critical illness or protein malnutrition, plasma proteins leak out of the blood vessels into the tissues causing swelling. This swelling is called:

edema

61

6) ________ is responsible for converting the inactive form of the enzyme pepsinogen to its active form, pepsin in the stomach.

a. Saliva
b. none of these choices
c. Chymotrypsin
d. Bile
e. Hydrochloric acid

e. Hydrochloric acid

62

6) Which of the following food categories provides no dietary protein?

a. grains
b. vegetables
c. fruits
d. meat

c. fruits

63

6) The ________ structure of proteins involves the interaction between two or more polypeptides.

a. tertiary
b. secondary
c. primary
d. quaternary

d. quaternary

64

6) With the health condition phenylketonuria, tyrosine is a(n):

a. conditionally essential amino acid
b. dipeptide
c. essential amino acid
d. nonessential amino acid

a. conditionally essential amino acid

65

6) A/an ________ bond connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.

a. amine

peptide

66

6) The area of study that examines how environmental factors influence gene expression without changing the DNA is known as ________ .

a. epigenetics

67

6) Which population does not require protein intake to exceed RDA values of 0.8g/kg of body weight?

a. pregnant women
b. older adults
c. women who are breastfeeding
d. infants
e. children

b. older adults

68

6) To prevent upsetting the acid-base balance of the blood, the liver cells combine ammonia with ________ to make urea.

b. carbon dioxide

69

6) Which of the following groups is not in positive nitrogen balance useful?

a. older adults

70

6) High-protein diets have been implicated in all of the following chronic diseases, except:

a. asthma
b. obesity
c. kidney stones
d. osteoporosis
e. cancer

a. asthma

71

6) Giant protein molecules manufactured by the immune system to aid in defending the body against disease are called ________ .

a. antibodies

72

6) The most common sign of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is:

a. poor growth

73

6) When amino acids are deaminated, the two resulting products are ammonia and ________ .

V

74

6) Which of the following is not a function of enzymes?

a. to slow down reactions between substances to allow for greater absorption
b. to help breakdown substances
c. to transform one substance into another
d. to help build substances

a. to slow down reactions between substances to allow for greater absorption

75

6) An adequate supply of ________ and fats spare amino acids from being used for energy.

a. proteins
b. vegetables
c. carbohydrates
d. oils

c. carbohydrates

76

6) The quality of a food protein is determined by comparing its amino acid composition with the essential amino acid requirements of which population?

a. preschool children
b. healthy adults
c. pregnant/lactating women
d. elderly adults
e. adolescents

a. preschool children

77

6) An ounce of most protein foods delivers about ________ grams of protein.

7

78

6) In order for complementary proteins to function together, they must be consumed in:

a. the same week
b. the same meal
c. the same hour
d. the same day

d. the same day

79

6) How many amino acids are essential?

9

80

6) The RDA for protein is ________ percent of total food energy.

10 to 35

81

6) Which of the following is a role that proteins assist with in your body?

a. all of these choices
b. blood clotting
c. muscle contraction
d. vision

a. all of these

82

6) Which of the following elements makes proteins different from carbohydrates and fats?

a. hydrogen
b. fluoride
c. oxygen
d. carbon
e. nitrogen

e. nitrogen

83

6) The protein hemoglobin is responsible for carrying ________ in the body.

oxygen

84

6) Which protein structure is determined by weak electrical attractions within the polypeptide chain?

a. secondary structure

85

6) Which of the following is not a digestive enzyme found in the small intestine?

a. pepsin
b. chymotrypsin
c. trypsin
d. carboxypeptidases

a. pepsin

86

6) The process of ________ is the making of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as amino acids.

a. gluconeogenesis

87

6)Instructions for making every protein in a person's body are stored in the ________ .

DNA

88

6) Which of the following statements regarding protein absorption is incorrect?

a. The digestive system absorbs amino acids at rates that are optimal for the body's use.

b. Eating predigested proteins (amino acid supplements) helps keep the digestive system from being overworked with protein digestion.

c. Most proteins are broken down to amino acids before absorption.

d. Enzymes in foods are digested just like all other proteins.

b. Eating predigested proteins (amino acid supplements) helps keep the digestive system from being overworked with protein digestion.