4) All of the following parts of the GI tract aid in the digestion of fiber, except:
b. large intestine
d. small intestine
4) Adolescents who drink about two cans of sugar-sweetened soft drinks daily consume ________ more kcalories a day than teens who don't.
4) Which of the following statements about diabetes is true?
a. Type 1 diabetes is more common than type 2 diabetes.
b. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce insulin.
c. Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with a healthy body weight.
d. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces a type of insulin that is abnormal and thus not recognized by the body.
e. Concentrated sweets, such as candy, are strictly excluded from the diabetic diet.
4)Harmful effects of excessive fiber intake may include all of the following except:
a. abdominal discomfort
c. obstruction of GI tract
4) ________ is the sweetest of the sugars.
4) When blood glucose levels fall, which hormone is secreted by the pancreas to stimulate the liver to break down its glycogen?
Which sugar can partially be absorbed in the mouth?
4) ________ contributes about half of the added sugars in the U.S. food supply and accounts for about 10 percent of the average energy intake in the United States.
4) Some studies have shown that selecting foods with a low glycemic index may improve all of the following, except:
a. blood lipids
b. colon cancer risk
c. weight management
d. glucose control
4) Which of the following items contains the most lactose?
a. 1 cup of cottage cheese
b. 1 cup of sherbet
c. ½ cup of low-fat yogurt
d. 1 oz. of chocolate candy
e. 1 cup of ice cream
4) Which of the following protein foods also provides a significant amount of carbohydrate to the diet?
4) Which of the following artificial sweeteners contains a warning for those with PKU?
4) Diets rich in fiber may provide all of the following health benefits, except:
a. reduction in blood pressure
b. reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes
c. prevention or alleviation of constipation
d. maintenance of healthy body weight
e. prevention or alleviation of ulcers
4) Which location along the GI tract is responsible for most of the work of carbohydrate digestion?
c. small intestine
d. large intestine
4) When blood glucose falls, the liver cells break down glycogen through ________ reactions into single molecules of glucose and release them into the bloodstream.
4) Which of the following carbohydrates is not a monosaccharide?
4) ________ is a polysaccharide, but not a dietary source of carbohydrate.
4) By following the USDA Food Pattern and making careful food selections, a typical adult can obtain all the needed nutrients within an allowance of about ________ kcalories.
4) Which of the following food items is not a source of soluble fiber?
c. brussels sprouts
e. black-eyed peas
4) Which of the following statements regarding lactose intolerance is false?
a. People who consume no milk products must take care to meet riboflavin, vitamin D, and calcium needs.
b. Total elimination of milk products is necessary for those who are lactose intolerant.
c. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea.
d. Lactase activity declines with age.
e. Lactose intolerance is greatest among native North Americans and Southeast Asians.
4) Which of the following statements regarding glucose is incorrect?
a. Glucose is the unit that almost exclusively makes up starch and glycogen.
b. Glucose is an essential energy source for all the body's activities.
c. Glucose is also known as blood sugar.
d. Glucose is one of the two sugars in every disaccharide except maltose.
4) All of the following locations in the body store glycogen, except:
4) Which of the following beverages may be helpful in protecting against dental caries?
a. soft drinks
b. orange juice
e. sport drinks
4) Which of the following is an herbal product that has recently been granted the status of "generally recognized as safe" and will be used as an alternative sweetener in the United States?
4) During which period in life is lactase activity the greatest?
b. early adulthood
d. late adulthood
4) Which of the following monosaccharide combinations makes up the disaccharide lactose?
a. glucose + fructose
b. glucose + galactose
c. glucose + glucose
d. fructose + fructose
e. fructose + galactose
5) Which of the following fatty acids is an essential fatty acid?
a. arachidonic acid
b. linoleic acid
c. arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid only
d. linoleic acid and linolenic acid only
e. linolenic acid
f. eicosapntaenoic acid and linoleic acid only
g. eicosapentaenoic acid
5) Which of the following statements is false regarding lipid chemistry?
a. Fatty acids made up of 20 carbons are the most common in foods.
b. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids.
c. Fatty acids come in long chains made up of an even number of carbon atoms.
d. Triglycerides are made up of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids.
5) In the body, trans-fatty acids that derive from hydrogenation behave more like ________ fats.
5) Fats help add all of the following to foods, except:
5) Chylomicrons bypass which organ at first as they travel through the lymphatic system after being released from the intestinal cells?
5) Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can:
a. increase inflammation for healing
b. help lower blood pressure
c. cause irregular heartbeats
d. increase blood clot formation
5) Which of the following is not a role of lipids in the body?
a. maintenance of cell membranes
b. provision of energy
c. insulation against temperature extremes
d. protection against shock
e. provision of materials for hair and nail creation
5) The excretion of bile in the feces helps to reduce ________ .
a. blood cholesterol
b. phospholipid absorption
c. fat absorption
d. chylomicron formation
5) The key dietary principle for fat is ________ .
5) Which of the following elements is not part of various lipid compounds?
5) Which of the following is not a major source of trans fats?
e. snack chips
5) Which of the following is not a sterol compound found in the body?
b. vitamin D
5) Fatty acids differ from one another according to all of the following characteristics, except:
a. location of double bonds
b. degree of saturation
c. all of these choices
d. length of their chains
5) Food sources of the phospholipid, lecithin, include all of the following, except:
5) Which of the following oils is not a major source of monounsaturated fats?
a. canola oil
b. peanut oil
c. olive oil
d. corn oil
5) Monounsaturated fatty acids help to protect against heart disease by all of the following except:
a. increasing blood pressure
b. interfering with the inflammatory response
c. lowering blood-clotting factors
d. providing phytochemicals that act as antioxidants
e. lowering LDL cholesterol
5) All of the following factors help raise HDL levels, except:
a. physical activity
c. moderate alcohol consumption
d. insoluble dietary fibers
5) The DRI and Dietary Guidelines recommend a diet that is low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and provides ________ percent of the daily energy intake from fat.
5) Fats are ________ , meaning that they tend to separate from the watery fluids of the GI tract.
5) This lipoprotein is responsible for removing cholesterol from cells and carrying the cholesterol back to the liver for recycling or disposal.
5) Which of the following is not a role of phospholipids?
a. acting as a cofactor for certain fat-soluble vitamins
b. helping fat-soluble substances pass in and out of cells
c. acting as an emulsifier
d. being a part of cell membranes
5) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 fatty acids important for all of the following except:
a. cognitive development
b. normal growth
c. prevention of cancer
d. treatment of heart disease
5) Of the following locations, which one is the site of the greatest amount of fat digestion?
a. small intestine
c. large intestine
5) Which of the following is an advantage of hydrogenation?
a. absence of requirements to report hydrogenated fats on nutrition facts labels
b. adding flavor to foods
c. prolonged shelf life of fats
d. alteration of food texture by making solid fats more liquid like vegetable oils
e. making processed foods more similar to unprocessed foods
5) High ________ cholesterol is associated with a high risk of heart attack.
6) During times of critical illness or protein malnutrition, plasma proteins leak out of the blood vessels into the tissues causing swelling. This swelling is called:
6) ________ is responsible for converting the inactive form of the enzyme pepsinogen to its active form, pepsin in the stomach.
b. none of these choices
e. Hydrochloric acid
6) Which of the following food categories provides no dietary protein?
6) The ________ structure of proteins involves the interaction between two or more polypeptides.
6) With the health condition phenylketonuria, tyrosine is a(n):
a. conditionally essential amino acid
c. essential amino acid
d. nonessential amino acid
6) A/an ________ bond connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.
6) The area of study that examines how environmental factors influence gene expression without changing the DNA is known as ________ .
6) Which population does not require protein intake to exceed RDA values of 0.8g/kg of body weight?
a. pregnant women
b. older adults
c. women who are breastfeeding
6) To prevent upsetting the acid-base balance of the blood, the liver cells combine ammonia with ________ to make urea.
6) High-protein diets have been implicated in all of the following chronic diseases, except:
c. kidney stones
6) Giant protein molecules manufactured by the immune system to aid in defending the body against disease are called ________ .
6) Which of the following is not a function of enzymes?
a. to slow down reactions between substances to allow for greater absorption
b. to help breakdown substances
c. to transform one substance into another
d. to help build substances
6) An adequate supply of ________ and fats spare amino acids from being used for energy.
6) The quality of a food protein is determined by comparing its amino acid composition with the essential amino acid requirements of which population?
a. preschool children
b. healthy adults
c. pregnant/lactating women
d. elderly adults
6) In order for complementary proteins to function together, they must be consumed in:
a. the same week
b. the same meal
c. the same hour
d. the same day
6) Which of the following is a role that proteins assist with in your body?
a. all of these choices
b. blood clotting
c. muscle contraction
6) Which of the following elements makes proteins different from carbohydrates and fats?
6) Which protein structure is determined by weak electrical attractions within the polypeptide chain?
6) Which of the following is not a digestive enzyme found in the small intestine?
6) The process of ________ is the making of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as amino acids.
6) Which of the following statements regarding protein absorption is incorrect?
a. The digestive system absorbs amino acids at rates that are optimal for the body's use.
b. Eating predigested proteins (amino acid supplements) helps keep the digestive system from being overworked with protein digestion.
c. Most proteins are broken down to amino acids before absorption.
d. Enzymes in foods are digested just like all other proteins.