exam 2 chapter 4

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 years ago by kcruzer
988 views
Microscopy
updated 4 years ago by kcruzer
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

immersion oil improves ________

RESOLUTION by increasing numerical aperture and allowing light to travel at a uniform speed

2

empty magnification: increasing _______, without increasing __________

magnification, resolution

3

phase contrast microscope: used to visualize _______

flagella

4

(4) associated with electron microscope

1. magnetic field
2. electron beam
3. vacuum
4. fluorescent screen

5

patient suffering from tuberculosis could be diagnosed with what stain?

acid fast

6

refraction of radiation as it passes through a lens produces ____________

magnification

7

(4) associated with phase microscopes

1. prisms
2. phase plate
3. unstained specimens
4. Nomarski microscope

8

physical characteristics rely on the ___________ of the organism

morphology

9

Robert Whitaker proposed (4)

Fungi, Plantae, Protista, Animalia

10

Kingdoms in the Linnaeus system are: (2)

Plantae, Animalia

11

structure that appears in a transmission electron micrograph but which is not actually present in the specimen is known as a ___________

artifact

12

(2) stains that use heat to drive the stain in

1. endospore stain
2. acid fast stain

13

rules of naming organisms _________

nomenclature

14

size of most cells is measured in _____________

micrometers

15

killing the microbes in the specimen, fixation using methanol or formalin, spreading the specimen onto a slide, and fixating using heat are all associated with ________

smear preparation

16

gram stains work due to differences in the __________ of bacteria

cell walls

17

Malachite green is used in ________ stain procedures

endospore

18

Characteristics of genus includes: (4)

1. it is one of two names used to identify organism
2. always capitalized
3. either underlined or in italics
4. written before the specific epithet

19

Carl Woese proposed _____________

differences in ribosome RNA

20

Why are modern light microscopes better than the ones Leeuwenhoek used?

1. Modern microscopes are compound instead of simple
2. better five fold resolution

21

magnifying lenses (2)

1. ocular
2. objective

22

types of light microscopes include (4)

1. phase contrast
2. confocal
3. fluorescent
4. bright field microscope

23

a cells GC ratio is associated with ________

analysis of nucleic acid

24

Gram positive= _________
Gram negative= _________ or __________

purple
pink//colorless

25

components of electron microscope stains (4)

1. uranium
2. lead
3. tungsten
4. osmium

26

cellular organelles and viruses are measured in _____________

nanometers

27

microscopy refers to the _________

passage of light or electrons of wavelengths through lenses to magnify objects, provides resolution and contrast

28

staining techniques are used to _______ contrast between object and background

enhance

29

simple microscope uses _______ magnifying lens
compound microscope uses _________ magnifying lens

single, series

30

lens closest to the object being magnified

objective lens

31

objective lens' attached to the __________

nosepiece

32

lens closest to the eyes

ocular lens

33

lens that lie beneath the stage and direct light through the slide

condenser

34

magnification of the objective lens X ocular lens

total magnification

35

a photograph of a microscopic image

micrograph

36

microscope that provides a dark background for small colorless specimen

dark field microscope

37

microscope such as phase contrast used to view cilia and flagella

phase microscope

38

microscope that uses UV light and fluorescent dyes to fluoresce specimens and enhance contrast

fluorescent micriscope

39

microscope that used fluorescent dyes in conjunction with computers to provide 3D images

confocal microscope

40

Electromagnetic spectrum:
smallest wave=
biggest
Typical bacteria and archae is how big?

smallest- gamma
biggest- radio
1 um

41

Contrast-image compare to _____
important in determining ________

surrounding
resolution

42

Dark Field Microscope:
used for pale _______
ex:

unstained objects
ex: spirochete

43

Staining:
Acidic-
Basic

acidic: alkalyne
basic: acidic

44

crystal violet aka ______ stain

primary

45

scientist who classified/ grouped similar organisms into categories
called "species"

Linnaeus

46

taxonomic identifying chracteristics: (5)

1. physical characteristics
2. Biochemical tests
3. Serological tests
4. phage type
5. analysis of nucleic acids

47

microscope that provides an image produced by the transmission of electrons through a sliced dehydrated specimen

transmission electron microscope

48

staining:
passing the slide through a flame- ________
applying a chemical to attach the specimen to the slide- _______

heat fixation
chemical fixation

49

2 dyes used to stain different portions of an organism
positive ion:
negative ion:

basic, acidic

50

simple stains process:

soaking the smear with ONE dye, rinsing with water

51

Differential stains: (3) use more than one dye

gram, acid fast, endospore

52

gram stains work because:

different of cell walls in bacteria

53

gram stain procedure includes: (4)

primary stain, mordant, decolorizer, counter stain

54

used to diagnose TB test: _________ stain

acid fast

55

dyes that stain the background and leave the cells colorless are called-

negative or capsule

56

_______ are non-overlapping groups of organisms that are studied and named in taxonomy

taxa

57

rules of _________ used to name organisms

nomenclature

58

Carolous Linnaeus system of taxonomy grouping: (8)
OSGFOCPK

organisms, species, genera, families, orders, classes, phyla, kingdom

59

Binomial nomenclature includes: (2)

genus name and specific epithet

60

Carl Woese (3) taxonomic domains

Bacteria, archae, eukaryote