Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter One

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The Human Body: An Orientation
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1

Anatomy

Studies the STRUCTURE of body and their relationships to one another

2

Physiology

Concerns the FUNCTION of the body, How the body parts work and carry out their life sustaining activities

3

Explain the principle of complementarity

Anatomy and physiology are individual, but they are really inseparable because function always reflects structure. What a structure can do depends on its specific form. Example: Blood flows in one direction through the heart because the heart has valves that prevent backflow.

4

The different levels of structural organization and their functions

CHEMICAL LEVEL-simplest level, atoms combine to make molecules, molecules for organelles
CELLULAR LEVEL-have their unique functions
TISSUE LEVEL-groups of similar cells that have a common function
ORGAN LEVEL-the specific functions for an organ
ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL-organs that work together to accomplish a purpose

5

The 8 necessary life functions

Maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, and growth

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The 5 survival needs for life

Nutrients, oxygen, water, appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure

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Homeostasis

Stable, internal environment of the body

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11 organ systems

Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive

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Homeostatic control

receptor, control center, and effector

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Negative feedback mechanisms

Body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate and depth, and blood levels of glucose, They reduce the effect of the original stimulus

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Positive feedback mechanisms

Blood clotting and labor contractions. They intensify the initial stimulus. They rarely contribute to homeostasis

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Anatomical position

The body erect, facing forward, feet slightly apart, arms at sides with palms forward

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Directional terms

Superior/inferior, anterior/posterior, ventral/dorsal; medial/lateral, intermediate; proximal/distal, and superficial/deep

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Body planes

Sagittal, frontal and transverse

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Dorsal cavity

Subdivided into the cranial and spinal cavities, contains the brain and spinal cord

16

Ventral cavity

Subdivided into the thoracic cavity, which houses the heart and lungs. The abdominopelvic cavity which contains the liver, digestive organs, and reproductive structures