Chapter 15 Pharmacology for the Radiographer - Terms

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1

Addiction

A dependence on a drug beyond voluntary control

2

Adverse effects

The development of undesired side effects or toxicity caused by the administration of drugs

3

Affinity

The chemical force that impels particular atoms or molecules to unite

4

Agranulocytosis

An acute disease condition that presents with an extremely low number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

5

Alternative therapies

Natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals, and therapeutic techniques such as massage and acupuncture

6

Angina

A severe constricting pain or sensation in the chest that may radiate to shoulder or arm; related to coronary artery disease

7

Aqueous

Watery

8

Blood

brain barrier - Anatomic structure that prevents certain substances from accessing the brain

9

Blood dyscrasias

Pathologic conditions of the cellular elements of the blood

10

Broad

spectrum antibiotics - Antibiotics effective against a wide variety of microorganisms

11

Buccal

In the mouth adjacent to the cheek

12

Contraindication

Any symptom or circumstance that renders use of a drug inadvisable

13

Cutaneous

Relating to the skin

14

Dependence

Reliance on a drug that may be physiologic or psychological in nature

15

Drug

drug interaction - One drug interacting or interfering with the action of another drug

16

Enteral

Within the gastrointestinal tract

17

Extended

spectrum antibiotics - Antibiotics effective against more microbes than broad-spectrum antibiotics

18

Extravasation

Fluid passing out of a blood vessel into surrounding tissues

19

First trimester of pregnancy

The first 3 months of pregnancy

20

Hypnotic

A drug that causes sleep

21

Hypokalemia

An abnormally low concentration of potassium ions in the bloodstream

22

Hypothyroidism

Reduced amount of thyroid hormone leading to a disease process

23

Indication

The basis for initiation of treatment or use of a particular drug

24

Intra

arterial - Within the artery

25

Intra

articular - Into the cavity of the joint

26

Intracardiac

Into the chambers of the heart

27

Intralesional

Applied directly into a lesion or wound

28

Lipoid

Pertaining to fat

29

Macromolecular

A molecule in a finely divided state dispersed in liquid or solid media

30

Narcotic

Any synthetic or naturally occurring drug that induces a state of stuporous analgesia

31

Neurologic

Related to the nervous system

32

Oral

By mouth

33

Parenteral or parenterally

Refers to administration of a drug by penetrating the skin

34

Rectal

Inserted into the rectum

35

Retrograde procedure

Instillation of contrast in opposite direction of physiologic flow of fluids in the body

36

Side effects

Mild, common reactions to drugs

37

Sublingual

Under the tongue

38

Thrombocytopenia

An abnormally small number of platelets in the circulating blood

39

Thrombosis

Clotting within a blood vessel

40

Thyrotoxicosis

A disease state related to excess amounts of thyroid hormone

41

Tinnitus

Sound in the ears, which can be ringing, whistling, hissing, roaring, or booming, in the absence of acoustic stimuli

42

Topical

Designed for or involving local application and action (the skin)

43

Toxic level

A drug given in a strength that is physiologically harmful

44

Toxic reaction

A life-threatening effect of a drug that may occur immediately or over a long period of the particular drug's administration

45

Urticaria

An eruption of itchy wheels, hives

46

Vaginal

Drug administration into the vagina

47

Vasodilatation

A widening of the lumen of blood vessels

48

Vasovagal response

Related to action of the vagus nerve upon blood vessels resulting in rapid pulse, cold sweats, bradycardia, hypotension, and syncope