Chapter 04 Infection Control - Terms

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1

Antimicrobial drugs

Drugs that tend to destroy microbes or prevent their multiplication

2

Antibiotics

Soluble substances derived from a mold or bacterium that kill or inhibit growth of other microorganisms

3

Arthropod vector

In the family Arthropoda, which includes spiders, mites, ticks, mosquitoes, etc.; can transmit infection to man or animals

4

Attenuated vaccine

A weakened or dilute solution of microbes

5

Bacteria

Colorless, minute, one-celled organisms with a typical nucleus

6

Broad

spectrum antimicrobial drug - A drug effective against a wide variety of different microorganisms

7

Carrier

A person or animal that harbors a particular infectious agent and does not have clinical disease but is able to transmit the disease to others

8

Cilia

Mobile extensions of a cell surface

9

Cytomegalovirus infections

A group of viruses in the Herpesviridae family

10

Encephalopathy

A disorder of the brain

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Enterotoxigenic

Referring to an organism that produces toxins specific for cells in the intestinal tract

12

Fecal

oral route - Disease passed from one person who has poor hand-washing hygiene to another through food touched by that person following stool elimination

13

Fungi

Cells that require an oxygenated environment to live; may be either yeasts or molds

14

Genetic predisposition

Inherited potential, via genetic transmission, for a particular illness or characteristic

15

Helminths

Parasitic worms that may live in the human intestinal tract for long periods of time if not treated

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Immune

Free from acquiring a particular infectious disease

17

Immune suppressed

Persons whose immunity is prohibited for physiologic reasons

18

Infectious disease

A disease capable of being passed from one person to another

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Nucleoid

A part of a nucleus (a nuclear inclusion body)

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Parasite

An organism that lives in or on another and draws its nourishment from the organism on which it lives

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Pathogenicity

The ability to cause disease

22

Percutaneous injection

Passage through the skin by needle puncture, including introduction of wires and catheters

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Phagocytic cells

Cells that ingest foreign material and microbes in the body tissues

24

Prion

An infectious particle of nonnucleic acid composition; must mutate to become infectious

25

Protozoa

One-celled organisms; often parasitic and are able to move by pseudopod formation, by action of flagella, or by cilia

26

Retention urinary catheters

Tubes that are placed in the urinary bladder and fixed in place for a period of time

27

Sterile

Free of all living microorganisms

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Vascular access devices

Catheters or needles that are able to enter the blood vessels

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Virulent

Extremely toxic

30

Viruses

Minute microbes that cannot be visualized under an ordinary microscope; the smallest microorganism known to produce disease