Biology Definitions

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Biology Definitions
Grade levels:
9th grade
Subjects:
biology
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1

Cell

A collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings: basic unit of all forms of life.

2

Cell Theory

Idea that all living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things and new cells are produced from existing cells.

3

Cell Membrane

Thin, flexible barrier around the cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell.

4

Cell Wall

Strong, supporting layers around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and bacteria.

5

Nucleus

Structure that contains all the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cells activities.

6

Cytoplasm

Material inside the cell membrane- not including the nucleus.

7

Prokaryote

Unicellular organism lacking a nucleus.

8

Eukaryote

Organism who's cell contains nuclei.

9

Organelle

Specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell.

10

Chromatin

Granular material visible within the nucleus: consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.

11

Chromosome

Threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.

12

Nucleolus

Small, dense region within most nuclei int which the assembly of proteins begins.

13

Nuclear Envelope

Layer of the membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell.

14

Cytoskeleton

Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain it's shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.

15

Microtubule

A tubular structure present in numbers in the cytoplasm of the ell, sometimes aggregating to form more complex structures.

16

Microfilament

A small rod-like structure found in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells.

17

Ribosome

Small particle in the cell which proteins are assembled: made of RNA and protein.

18

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Internal membrane in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assemble and some proteins are modified.

19

Golgi Apparatus

Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.

20

Lysosome

Cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell.

21

Vacuole

Cell organelle that stores materials such as waters, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.

22

Chloroplast

Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.

23

Mitochondria

Cell organelle that converts chemical energy stored into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.

24

Cell Specialization

The process in which cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks.

25

Tissue

Group of similar cells that perform a particular function.

26

Organ

Group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.

27

Organ System

Group of organs that work together to perform closely related functions.