Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves

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1

Central Nervous System

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-consists of the brain and spinal cord, which primarily interpret incoming sensory information and issue instructions based on that info and on past experience

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Peripheral Nervous System

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-consists of the cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia, and sensory receptors

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Two Subdivisions of PNS

1.Sensory Portion
2.Motor Portion

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Sensory Portion

-consists of nerve fibers that conduct impulses toward the CNS

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Motor Portion

-contains nerve fibers that conduct impulses away from the CNS
-consists of the somatic division and autonomic nervous system

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Somatic Division (sometimes called the voluntary system)

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-controls the skeletal muscles

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Autonomic Nervous System (often referred to as Involuntary Nervous System)

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-controls smooth and cardiac muscles and glands
- its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches play a role in maintaining homeostasis

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Neural Tube

-epithelial tube developed from the neural plate and forming the central nervous system of the embyro

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Three major regions of the brain

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1.Forebrain
2.Midbrain
3.Hindbrain

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Ventricles

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-cavities within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid

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Cerebral Hemispheres

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-either half of the cerebrum
the most superior portion of the brain

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Gyri

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-elevated ridges of tissue

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Sulci

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-shallow grooves

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Fissures

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-deeper grooves

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Longitudinal Fissure

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-single deep fissure

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Central Sulcus

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-divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe

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Lateral Sulcus

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-separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe

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Parieto-occipital Sulcus

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-on the medial surface of each hemisphere divides the occipital lobe from the parietal lobe

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Insula

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-fifth lobe of each cerebral hemispheres
-buried deep within the lateral sulcus
-covered by portions of the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes.

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Primary Somatosensory Cortex

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-region of the brain where nerve signals from the sense of touch are normally received
-located in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe

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Somatosensory Association Cortex

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-incoming stimuli is analyzed
-allows you to become aware of pain, coldness, a light touch, and the like

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Uncus

- the hooklike anterior end of the hippocampal gyrus on the temporal lobe of the brain

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Primary Motor Cortex

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- responsible for conscious or voluntary movement of skeletal muscles.
-located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe

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Broca's area

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-specialized speech motor area
-located at the base of the precentral gyrus just above the lateral sulcus
-located in only one cerebral hemisphere, usually the left

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Prefrontal Cortex

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-contains many areas involved in intellect, complex reasoning, and personality
-anterior portions of the frontal lobes

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Wernicke's Area

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-at the junction of the parietal and temporal lobes
-an area in which familiar words are sounded out
-located in only one cerebral hemisphere, typically left

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Cerebral Cortex

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-outer layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres
-responsible for for higher brain function, including sensation, voluntary muscle movement, thought, reasoning, and memory

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Cerebral White Matter

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-composed of fiber tracts carrying impulses to or from the cortex

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Diencephalon

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-posterior part of the forebrain that connects the midbrain with the cerebral hemispheres
-encloses the third ventricle, and contains the thalamus and hypothalmus

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Olfactory Bulbs

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-the bulblike distal end of the olfactory lobe, where the olfactory nerves begin
-synapse point of cranial nerve I

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Pituitary Gland

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-small oval endocrine gland attached to the base of the vertebrate brain and consisting of an anterior and posterior lobe

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Mammillary Bodies

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- one of two small round structures on the undersurface of the brain that form the terminals of the anterior arches of the fornix
-relay stations for olfaction
-bulges exteriorly from the floor of the hypothalamus just posterior to the pituitary gland

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Brain Stem

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-the stemlike portion of the brain connecting the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord
-comprising the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain

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Cerebellum

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-cauliflower-like
-projects dorsally from under the occipital lobes of the cerebrum.
*outer cortex made up of gray matter
*inner region of white matter

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Pons

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-consists primarily of motor and sensory fiber tracts connecting the brain with lower CNS centers

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Medulla Oblongata

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composed primarily of fiber tracts

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Corpus Callosum

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-major commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres

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Fornix

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-bandlike fiber tract concerned with olfaction as well as limbic system functions

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Septum Pellucidum

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-separates the lateral ventricles of the cerebral hemispheres

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Thalamus

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-consists of two large lobes of gray matter that laterally enclose the shallow third ventricle of the brain

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Hypothalamus

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-makes up the floor and inferolateral walls of the third ventricle
-involved in regulation of body temperature, water balance, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism

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Epithalamus

-forms the roof of the third ventricle
-most dorsal portion of the diencephalon
-contains pineal gland

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Cerebral Aqueduct

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-a slender canal traveling through the midbrain
-connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle in the hindbrain below

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Meninges

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-3 layer of connective tissue membranes covering and protecting the brain and spinal cord

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Dura Mater

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-outermost meninx double layered membrane
1.Periosteal layer
- attached to the inner surface of the skull forming the periosteum
2.Meningeal Layer
- forms the outermost brain covering and it continuous with the dura mater of the spinal cord

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Arachnoid Mater

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-weblike middle meninx
-underlies the dura mater and is partially separated from it by the subdural space

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Pia Mater

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-the innermost meninx
-highly vascular and clings tenaciously to the surface of the brain