Histology of Nervous Tissue

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1

Nervous Tissue

-the master integrating and coordinating system
-monitors and processes sensory info
-divided into central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

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Central Nervous System

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-consists of brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

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-includes all nervous elements located outside the central nervous system
*ex: nerves, sensory receptors, and some cluster of nerve cells

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Nervous Tissue

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-made up of neurons and neuroglia cells

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Neuroglia/ Glial Cells

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-serves the needs of the delicate neurons by bracing and protecting them
CNS: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, and ependymal cells
PNS: Schwann cells and satellite cells

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Microglial Cells

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-acts as phagocytes

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Oligodendrocytes & Schwann Cells

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-myelinate the cytoplasmic extensions of the neurons

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Astrocytes

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-play a role in capillary-neuron exchanges and control the chemical environment around neurons

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Neuron/Nerve Cells

-basic functional units of nervous tissue
-transmit messages from one part of the body to another in the form of nerve impulses

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Cell Body of Neuron

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-slender processes extend
-both the biosynthetic center of the neuron and part of its receptive region
-make up the gray matter of the CNS and form clusters there called nuclei and ganglia in PNS
-contains a large round nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm

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Nuclei

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-cluster of neuron cell bodies in CNS

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Ganglia

-cluster of neuron cell bodies in PNS

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Two structures found in the cytoplasm

Neurofibrils and Chromatophilic Substance

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Neurofibrils

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-provide support for the cell and a means to transport substances throughout the neuron

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Chromatophilic Substance/Nissl Bodies

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-an elaborate type of rough endoplasmic reticulum involved in the metabolic activities of the cell

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Two Types of Neuron Processes.

1.Dendrites
2.Axons

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Dendrites

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-receptive regions that bear receptors for neurotransmitters released by the axon terminals of other neurons

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Axons/Nerve Fibers

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-form the impulse generating and conducting region of the neuron
-the white matter of the nervous system

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Tracts

-bundles of axons in the CNS

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Nerves

-bundles of axons in PNS

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Neurons may have several dendrites, but they only have a single _____________.

Axon

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Axon Collaterals

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-branch off of the main axon forming more processes

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Axon Hillock

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-conical area of origin of the axon from the nerve cell body

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Axon Terminals

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club-shaped endings by which axons make synaptic contacts with other nerve cells or effector cells
-stores the neurotransmitter chemical in tiny vesicles

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Synaptic Cleft

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- a narrow extracellular cleft between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes

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Neuromuscular Junction

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-specialized synapses between neurons and skeletal muscles

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Myelinated Fibers

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-long nerve fibers that are covered by fatty material (myelin)

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Axons in the PNS are typically heavily myelinated by special supporting cells called ______________.

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Schwann Cells

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Schwann Cells

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-wrap themselves tightly around the axon in jelly roll fashion, this wrapping is the myelin sheath

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Nodes of Ranvier

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-gaps or indentations in the myelin sheath

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Within the CNS myelination is accomplished by neuroglia called ________________.

Oligodendrocytes

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Unipolar Neurons

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-one very short process which divides into peripheral and central processes, extends from cell body

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Bipolar Neurons

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-have two processes attached to the cell body
-rare

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Multipolar Neurons

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-many processes

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Sensory (Afferent) Nerves

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- conduct impulses only toward the CNS

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Motor (Efferent) Nerves

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-carry impulses only away from the CNS

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Mixed Nerves

-nerves carrying both sensory and motor fibers

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Endoneurium

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-delicate connective tissue enveloping individual nerve fibers

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Perineurium

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-sheath of connective tissue enclosing a bundle of nerve fibers
-forming fascicles

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Epineurium

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sheath of connective tissue around all fascicles of nerve fibers