The Axial Skeleton
Bridge of nose
Posterior bones of the hard palate
Much of the lateral and superior cranium
Most posterior part of the cranium
Single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial floor
Tiny bones bearing tear ducts
Anterior part of the hard palate
Superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections
Site of mastoid process
Site of "sella turica"
Site of cribriform plate
Site of mental foramen
Site of styloid process
Four bones containing paranasal sinuses
Ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal, maxillae
Condyles here articulate with the atlas
Foramen magnum located here
Small U-shaped bone in the neck, where many tongue muscles attach
Middle ear found here
"The cock's comb"; crista galli
Contain alveoli bearing teeth
Mandible and maxillae
Fibrous bands of tissues that connect the bones of the skull
With one exception, skull bones are joined by sutures. Name the exception.
Parietal and temporal
What bones are connected by the lambdoid suture?
Parietal and temporal with occipital
What bones are connected by the squamous suture?
Temporal and parietal bones (TP)
Name the eight bones of the cranium.
(2) Parietal; (2) Temporal; Frontal; Ethmoid; Sphenoid; Occipital
Give two possible functions of the sinuses.
1. Resonance chambers for speech
2. Lighter skull
What is the orbit?
What bones contribute to the formation of the orbit?
Frontal, maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid, sphenoid, palatine, zygomatic bones
Why can the sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor?
Sphenoid articulates with all of the cranial bones
Vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain
Dens here provides a pivot for rotation of C1
Transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs; spinous process pointing sharply downward
Composite bone that articulates with the hip bone laterally
Massive vertebrae that is weight sustaining
Tail bone, fused vestigial vertebrae
Supports the head and allows a rocking motion
Cavity enclosing the nerve cord
Weight bearing portion of the vertebra
Provides levers against which muscles pulls
Spinous and transverse
Provides articulation point for the ribs
Body and transverse
Openings providing for exit of spinal nerves
Structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord
Body and vertebral arch
Describe how a spinal nerve exits from the vertebral column.
Spinal nerves exit the vertebral column through the ventral root then the ventral horn. Sensory nerves enter spinal cord via dorsal horn, synapse on dorsal ganglia, and enter spinal cord
Two factors that permit flexibility of the vertebral column
2. S-shaped vertebral column
What kind of tissue composes the intervertebral discs?
What is a herniated disc?
Disc in which the nucleus pulposus herniates through the annulus
What problems would a herniated disc cause?
The nucleus pulposus compresses on the spinal cord leading to pain and possible paralysis
Two spinal curvatures that are obvious at birth?
Concave forward in the Thoracic and Sacral spine
What conditions do secondary curvatures develop?
Over course of normal development
1. Cervical curvature- when infant lifts up its head
2. Lumbar curvature- when infant learns to sit up
Major bony components of the thorax
Ribs and sternum
True rib vs. false rib.
True rib attaches to cartilage that articulates with the sternum
Floating ribs are true or false ribs?
What is the general shape of the thoracic cage?