The Axial Skeleton

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created 5 years ago by winnieto89
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1

Forehead bone

Frontal

2

Cheekbone

Zygomatic

3

Lower jaw

Mandible

4

Bridge of nose

Nasal

5

Posterior bones of the hard palate

Palatines

6

Much of the lateral and superior cranium

Parietal

7

Most posterior part of the cranium

Occipital

8

Single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial floor

Sphenoid

9

Tiny bones bearing tear ducts

Lacrimal

10

Anterior part of the hard palate

Maxillae

11

Superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections

Ethmoid

12

Site of mastoid process

Temporal

13

Site of "sella turica"

Sphenoid

14

Site of cribriform plate

Ethmoid

15

Site of mental foramen

Mandible

16

Site of styloid process

Temporal

17

Four bones containing paranasal sinuses

Ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal, maxillae

18

Condyles here articulate with the atlas

Occipital

19

Foramen magnum located here

Occipital

20

Small U-shaped bone in the neck, where many tongue muscles attach

Hyoid

21

Middle ear found here

Temporal

22

Nasal septum

Vomer

23

"The cock's comb"; crista galli

Ethmoid

24

Contain alveoli bearing teeth

Mandible and maxillae

25

Define suture.

Fibrous bands of tissues that connect the bones of the skull

26

With one exception, skull bones are joined by sutures. Name the exception.

Parietal and temporal

27

What bones are connected by the lambdoid suture?

Parietal and temporal with occipital
(PTO)

28

What bones are connected by the squamous suture?

Temporal and parietal bones (TP)

29

Name the eight bones of the cranium.

(2) Parietal; (2) Temporal; Frontal; Ethmoid; Sphenoid; Occipital

30

Give two possible functions of the sinuses.

1. Resonance chambers for speech
2. Lighter skull

31

What is the orbit?

Eye socket

32

What bones contribute to the formation of the orbit?

Frontal, maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid, sphenoid, palatine, zygomatic bones

33

Why can the sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor?

Sphenoid articulates with all of the cranial bones

34

Vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain

Cervical vertebra-typical

35

Dens here provides a pivot for rotation of C1

Axis

36

Transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs; spinous process pointing sharply downward

Thoracic

37

Composite bone that articulates with the hip bone laterally

Sacrum

38

Massive vertebrae that is weight sustaining

Lumbar

39

Tail bone, fused vestigial vertebrae

Coccyx

40

Supports the head and allows a rocking motion

Atlas

41

Cavity enclosing the nerve cord

Vertebral foramen

42

Weight bearing portion of the vertebra

Body

43

Provides levers against which muscles pulls

Spinous and transverse

44

Provides articulation point for the ribs

Body and transverse

45

Openings providing for exit of spinal nerves

Intervertebral foramina

46

Structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord

Body and vertebral arch

47

Describe how a spinal nerve exits from the vertebral column.

Spinal nerves exit the vertebral column through the ventral root then the ventral horn. Sensory nerves enter spinal cord via dorsal horn, synapse on dorsal ganglia, and enter spinal cord

48

Two factors that permit flexibility of the vertebral column

1. Discs
2. S-shaped vertebral column

49

What kind of tissue composes the intervertebral discs?

Fibrocartilage

50

What is a herniated disc?

Disc in which the nucleus pulposus herniates through the annulus

51

What problems would a herniated disc cause?

The nucleus pulposus compresses on the spinal cord leading to pain and possible paralysis

52

Two spinal curvatures that are obvious at birth?

Concave forward in the Thoracic and Sacral spine

53

What conditions do secondary curvatures develop?

Over course of normal development
1. Cervical curvature- when infant lifts up its head
2. Lumbar curvature- when infant learns to sit up

54

Major bony components of the thorax

Ribs and sternum

55

True rib vs. false rib.

True rib attaches to cartilage that articulates with the sternum

56

Floating ribs are true or false ribs?

False ribs

57

What is the general shape of the thoracic cage?

Cone shape