Campbel Biology Test Chapters 22,23,24, and 26

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 22-24, 26
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College: First year, College: Second year
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1

Is supported by and makes sense of any osbservation

Theory

2

Homologous to ancestors, or common ancestors

Vestigial

3

Unique to a geographic area

Endemic species

4

Is a graded change in a trait along geographic areas

Cline

5

consists of the movement of alleles among populations
Alleles can be transferred through the movement of fertile individuals or gametes (for example, pollen)

Gene Flow

6

describes how allele frequencies fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next
tends to reduce genetic variation through losses of alleles

Genetic Drift

7

Sudden reduction in a population do to the environment changing

Bottle neck effect

8

Few individuals from a larger population become isolated from that larger group and start there own population

Founder Effect

9

Form of natural selection in which individuals with a certain inherit gene mate with another of the same have have successful mating

Sexual Selection

10

Makes the difference between the sexes, in the secondary sexual characterstics

Sexual Dorphism

11

Better chance at survival, and is most closely related to stabilizing selection

Heterozygous advantage

12

The regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances

Catastrophism

13

Studied Fossil record with catastrophism

Cuvier

14

What did Darwin Study?

A mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence

15

Why have giraffes developed longer necks over time?

Because trees got taller, and evolution to adapt with the environment

16

What is natural selection based on?

Genetic variation exists within the population, best adopted longer lives is more offspring,(Individuals with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reporduce)

17

Why is MRSA an example of artificial selection?

Because humans synthesis methacilin and create environment in which bacteria frequently come into contact with methicilin

18

How would can you explain the fact that human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones and have developed from very similar embryonic tissues?

Common ancestors and homologos selection

19

Why is acceptable to say all life on earth comes from a common origin?

All organisms are essentially the same genetic code

20

Why are old fossils found vs newer fossils?

Deeper in the rock

21

What are the three mechanisms that cause allele/gene frequency change?

Natural Selection, Genetic drift, and gene flow

22

What in an Organisms genes is most likely to help the organism respond properly to changes in its environment?

Natural Selection

23

is 52% of loci are heterozygous on average how many are homozygous?

48%

24

Why can't natural selection fashion perfect organisms?

1.Selection can only act on existing variations
2.Evolution is limited by historical constraints
3. Adaptions are often compromises
4. Chance, Natural selection, and the environment interact

25

Briefly explain what Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium means and what type of population it describes.

1.There are no Mutations
2.The mating is random
3.No natural selection
4. Large population
5. No gene flow
It Describes a Hypothetical Population that is not evolving

26

List and Describe the various mechanisms help to preserve genetic variation in a population.

Heterozygous advantage-Maintains two alleles between individuals
Diploids-holds chromosones
Natural Selection- genes that help mating good offspring

27

List and describe the 3 modes of selection

1. Directional selection- favors individuals at one end of the phenotype range
2. Disruptive selection- favors both individuals at the extreme ends of the phenotype
3. Stabilizing selection- favors intermediate phenotypes and acts against the extremes

28

Favors Indivudals at one end of the phenotpye range

Directional Selection

29

favors both individuals at the extreme ends of the phentype

Disruptive selection

30

favors the intermediate phenotypes and acts against the extreme phenotypes

Stabilizing selection

31

Evolutions above the species level

Macroevolution

32

Region in which members of different species reproduce hybrid offspring

Hybrid zone

33

group of a population, that from 1 split into 2

Speciation

34

List and describe the species concepts

States a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and reproduce fertile offspring

35

Punctuated equilibrium model

describes the periods of apparent stasis punctuated by a sudden change

36

what are the Prezygotic Barriers?

habitat isolation
temporal isolation
behavioral isolation
mechanical isolation
gametic isolation

37

Two species encounter each other rarely, or not at all, because they occupy different habitats, even though not isolated by physical barriers

habitat isolation

38

Species that breed at different times of the day, different seasons, or different years cannot mix their gametes

Temporal isolation

39

Courtship rituals and other behaviors unique to a species are effective barriers

behavioral isolation

40

Morphological differences can prevent successful mating

Mechanical isolation

41

Sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize eggs of another species

Gametic isolation

42

What is the possible outcome when closely related species meet in the hybrid zone?

They reinforce the hybrids and diffuse into a single population

43

Analogous structures that evolve independently

Homoplasy

44

Much evolutionary change in genes and has no effect on fitness and is not influence by selection

neutral theory

45

What are the taxonomical levels

domain, kingdom. phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

46

What would the best classification system be based on?

Evolutionary History

47

what did the use of computers and software enable scientist to better study in the field of phylogeny?

The research of trees that are parsimonious and likely

48

In a cladistic approach to systematic, what is the most important for classification?

Shared derived characteristics

49

Why would species that are not closely related and that do not share many anatomical similarities still be placed together on the same phylogentic tree?

Homologous genes that are highly conserved

50

What would allow a gene to act as a molecular clock? which would not allow a gene to act as a molecular clock?

When its not acted upon and when it is mutated

51

Come from a common ancestor

Homology

52

Homoplasy, analogous structures

Homoplasies

53

Similarities and convergent evolution

analogous

54

decent with modification

evolution

55

modified other species by selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits

artificial selection

56

Consists of all the alleles for all loci in a population

gene pool

57

Differential success in reproduction results in certain alleles being passed to the next generation in greater proportions
For example, an allele that confers resistance to DDT increased in frequency after DDT was used widely in agriculture

Natural Selection

58

is the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals

Relative fitness

59

the fitness of a phenotype declines if it becomes too common in the population

Frequency-dependent selection