Exam 3

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1

The animal phylum like the protists that gave rise to the animal kingdom is

Proifera

2

Which of the following is a difference between plants and fungi?

Fungi are heterotrophic, and plants are autotrophic

3

A graduate student finds an organism in a pond & thinks it is a freshwater sponge. A postdoctoral student thinks it looks more like an aquatic fungus. How can they decide whether it is an animal or a fungus?

Looks for a cell wall under a microscope

4

The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are

Composed of hyphae
Referred to as a mycelium
Usually underground

5

Fossil fungi date back to the origin & early evolution of plants. What combination of environmental & morphological change is similar in the evolution of both fungi and plants?

Colonization of land and loss of flagellated cells

6

The multicellular condition of animals and fungi seems to have arisen

By convergent evolution

7

Lichens are symbolic associations of fungi and

Cyanobacteria
Green algae

8

Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens?

Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae

9

All fungi share which of the following characteristics?

Heterotrophic

10

Among the organisms listed here, which are though to be the closest relatives of fungi?

Animals

11

Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. Which distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animal derive their nutrition by

Ingesting it

12

Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?

Nervous conduction and muscular movement

13

The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a

Flagellated protest

14

Whatever its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion is a prime example of

Adaptive radiation

15

What is the probable sequence in which the following clades of animals originated, from earliest to most recent?

Bilaterians
Deuterostomes
Vertebrates
Tetrapods
Amniotes

16

Arthropods invaded land about 100 million years before vertebrates did so. This most clearly implies that

Arthropods have had more time to coevolve with land plants than have vertebrates

17

What distinguished a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate animal is that coelomates

Have a body cavity completely lines by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not

18

The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having

True tissues or no tissues

19

Phylogenetic trees are best described as

Hypothetical; portrayals of evolutionary relationships

20

According to the evidence collected so far, the animal kingdom is

Monophyletic

21

The distinctions between sponges and other animal phyla is based mainly on the absence versus the presence of

True tissues

22

Which characteristic(s) is (are) shared by both cnidarians and flatworms

A digestive system with a single opening

23

Against which hard structure do the circular and longitudinal muscles of annelids work?

Hydrostatic skeleton

24

What would be the most effective method of reducing the method of blood flukes in a human population?

Reduce the freshwater snail population

25

Humans most frequently acquire trichinosis by

Eating undercooked pork

26

The heart worms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom , an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong

Nematoda

27

Among the invertebrate phyla, phylum arthropod is unique in possessing members that have

Wings

28

What distinguishes complete metamorphosis from incomplete metamorphosis in insects?

The radically different appearance between adults and earlier life stages

29

Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as

Suspension-feeding devices

30

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?

Lancelets

31

What do all craniates have that earlier chordates did not have?

Partial or complete skulls

32

Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?

Chondrichthyans

33

Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?

They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure

34

Which of the following belong to the lobe-fin clade?

Tetrapods

35

A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapod’s was

Feet with digits

36

Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?

It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment

37

Which year is known as the “age of reptiles”?

Mesozoic

38

At the end of which period did most dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct?

Crustaceous

39

Which of the following are only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?

Birds

40

Which of the following are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?

Ray-finned fish

41

Which of the following species is currently thought to have coexisted (at the same time & place) with H. Neanderthalensis?

H. Sapiens

42

Which of these statements about human evolution is correct?

Different species of the genus Homo have coexisted at various times throughout hominin evolution