Chapter 21 The Respiratory System
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
1. pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
2. external respiration (gas exchange to and from blood
3. transport of respiratory gases (gases moved to and from tissues)
4. Internal respiration (gases diffuse to and from blood to tissue)
The respiratory system consists of what two zones?
1. respiratory zone(actual site of gas exchange, made of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli)
2. conducting zone(all other respiratory passage ways and organs)
The external opening of the nose is called?
the nostrils or nares
There are two types of palates in the nose..
1. the hard palate
2. the soft palate
What are vibrissae? What do they do?
1. hair follicles in the nose
2. they filter coarse particles from inspired air
Small patches in the nose that contain smell receptors?
seromucous nasal glands secrete how much mucus containing lysozymes each day?
respiratory mucosa secretes this natural antibiotic that kills that help kill invading microbes?
What happens to contaminated mucus?
ciliated cells create a gentle current, pushing it towards the throat where it is swallowed and digested.
Name the three scroll-like mucosa covered projections found in the nasal cavity.
1. superior nasal conchae
2. middle nasal conchae
3. inferior nasal conchae
Inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by accessive mucus production, nasal congestion, and post nasal drip?
What do you called inflammation of the sinuses?
The pharynx is divided into three regions called?
The division of the pharynx that serves only as an air passageway and is closed by the uvula to prevent food from entering the nasal cavity.
The nasopharynx is made up of what type of tissue?
pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located?
What do they do?
1. located in the nasopharynx
2. trap and destroy pathogens entering the nasopharynx in air.
Division of the pharynx that both swallowed food and air pass through; continues through the archway called isthmus of the fauces?
The oropharynx is made up of what type of tissue?
stratified squamous epithelium
The oropharynx contains 2 different tonsils.
1. the paired palantine tonsils
2. the lingual tonsil
What division of the pharynx, like the oropharynx, serves as a passageway for food and air?
Another name for the voice box
What are the three functions of the larynx?
1. to provide a patent(open)airway
2. to route air and food to proper channel
3. voice production
The larynx is made up of how many cartilage rings?
Name the nine cartilages of the larynx
1. throid cartilage (1)
2. cricoid cartilage (1)
3. arytenoid cartilage (2)
4. cuneiform cartilage (2)
5. corniculate cartilage (2)
6. epiglottis (1)
Ligaments that are composed largely of elastic fibers and form the core of mucosal folds, appear pearly white.
vocal folds or true vocal cords
The vocal folds and the medial opening between them through which air passes are called?
Plays no part in sound production but help to close the glottis when we swallow
false vocal cords or vestibular folds
Inflammation of the vocal folds that causes them to swell and interfer with their vibration is called?
Another word for your windpipe?
The trachea is about how long in lenth?
The three layers of the tracheal wall are?
3. adventitia (outtermost)
(and a layer of hyaline cartilage)
The mucosa layer of the trachea is made up of what tissue type?
The submucosa layer of the trachea is made up of what tissue type?
the adventitia layer of the trachea is made up of what tissue type?
What is the name of the last tracheal cartilage where it branches into the two main bronchi?
The procedure in which air in the victim's lungs is used to "pop out" or expel a piece of food?
Air passageways branch about how many times in the lungs?
about 23 times
The trachea divides to form?
The right and left main (primary) bronchi
Inside the lungs, each main bronchus subdivides into?
Lobar (secondary) bronchi
-three on the right
-two on the left
The Lobar bronchi branch into?
segmental (tertiary) bronchi
Passageways in the bronchi that are less that 1mm in diameter are called?
Thin-walled air sacs found in the respiratory zone are called?
The walls of the alveoli are composed primarily of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells called?
Type I alveolar cells
Type II alveolar cells sevrer a fluid containing a detergent-like substance called?
An indentation on the mediastinal surface of each lung through which pulmonary and systwmic blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and leave the lungs?
A concavity in the left lung that is molded to and accomodates the heart is called?
the cardiac notch
The smallest sundivision of the lung visible with the naked eye are?
The balance of lung tissue is also called?
stroma (mostly elastic connective tissue)
The __________ forms a thin, double-layered serosa.
What is the name of the layer that covers the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm?
What is the name of the layer that covers the external lung surface?
What is the name of the fluid that is produced by the pleurae which fills the slitlike pleural cavity?
Inflammation of the pleuraw which results from pneumonia is called?
General name for fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity is called?
What do you call the pressure that is exerted by the air (gases) surrounding the body?
What is atmospheric pressure?
What is intrapulmonary pressure?
What is intrapleural pressure?
Always about 4mm less that intrapulmonary pressure.
Another name for lung collapse which occurs when the bronchiole becomes plugged?
The presence of air in the pleural cavity is referred to as?
What is Boyle's Law?
Volume changes lead to pressure changes.
Pressure ^ Volume v
Pressure v Volume ^
What are the inspiratory muscles?
The diaphragm and external intercostal muscles.
The normal volume of air that enters the lungs during a normal quiet inspiration.
In healthy individuals, quiet expiration is a __________ process.
The total amount of gas that flows into or out of the respiratory tract in one minute is called?
The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas.
Dalton's law of partial pressures
_____________ is directly proportional to the percentage of that gas in the gas mixture.
Law that states when a gas is in contact with a liquid, the gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure.
___________ respiration involves capillary gas exchange in body tissues
Because oxygen is poorly soluble in water, only ___% of the oxygen transported is carried in the dissolved form.
____% of the oxygen is carried from lungs to tissues in a lose chemical combination with hemoglobin.
In hemoglobin, when all 4 of its heme groups are bound to O2 its is considered?
In hemoglobin, when only one, two, or three of its heme groups are bound to O2 it is considered?
Three things that influence hemoglobin saturation are?
2. Blood pH
3. The amount of BPG in the blood
Inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues is called?
A unique type of hypoxemic hypoxia and is the leading cause of death from fire?
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Blood transports CO2 from the tissue cells to the lungs in three forms:
1. dissolved in plasma (7-10%)
2. chemically bound to hemoglobin (about 20%)
3. as a bicarbonate ions in plasma (about 70%)
RBC contain what enzyme that helps transport CO2 faster that plasma?
What ion exchange process occurs via facilitated diffusion through a RBC membrane protein?
the Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system is important in resisting shifts in blood pH.
clustered neurons in two areas of the medulla oblongata appear to be critically important in respiration are?
1. ventral respiratory group (VRG)
2. dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
What are two nerves that are excited when inspiratory neurons are fired?
1. phrenic nerve
2. intercostal nerves
Normal respiratory rate is?
12-15 breaths per minute
Normal respiratory rate and rhythm is called?
Of all the chemicals influencing respiration, what is the most potent and the most closely controlled?