Bones and Skeletal Tissues

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Chapter 6 Flascards
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1

Name the 3 types of skeletal cartilege

hyaline, elastic and fibrocartiledge

2

true/false
skeletal cartilage has lots of blood vessels and nerves

false. it has none

3

skeletal cartilage is surrounded by _________ (dense regular CT) that resists outward expansion like a girdle

perichondrium

4

what is skeletal tissue primarily made of that accounts for it's resilience and allows it to spring back after being compressed?

water

5

list the 4 types of hyaline cartiledge

articular
costal
respiratory
nasal

6

what is the function of the articular cartilage?

covers the ends of long bones?

7

what is the function of the costal cartilage?

connects the ribs to the sternum

8

what is the function of the respiratory cartilage?

makes up the larynx and reinforces air passages

9

what is the function of the nasal cartilage?

supports the nose

10

what are the 2 regions of the body where elastic cartilage is found?

the external ear and the epiglottis

11

name the 2 places where fibrocartilage is found

menisci of the knee
intervertebral discs

12

which bones make up the axial skeleton and what is it's function?

the axial skeleton includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column and rib cage and is involved in protecting, supporting and carrying other body parts

13

which bones make up the appendicular skeleton and what is it's function?

the appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder and hip and helps up move around and manipulate our environment

14

define "long bones"

longer than they are wide (e.g. the humerus)

15

_____________ are cube shaped bones of the wrist and ankle that form within tendons (e.g. the patella)

short bones

16

these types of bones are thin, flattened and a bit curved (e.g. the sternum and most skull bones)

flat bones

17

what is the definition of an irregular bone?

bones with a complicated shape
(vertebrae and hip bones)

18

list the 5 functions of bones

1. support
2. protection
3. movement
4. mineral storage
5. blood cell formation

19

list he 4 different types of bones

1.long
2. short
3. flat
4. irregular

20

what is the name of the dense outer layer of bones whose core is filled with yellow bone marrow in adults? (red in babies)

compact bone

21

define the spongy bone

a honeycomb of trabeculae (little beams) whose open spaces are typically filled with yellow or red marrow

22

what is the long bone shaft called?

diaphysis

23

what are the ends of a long bone called? (these ends are often broader than the diaphysis)

epiphysis

24

bone markings are bulges, depressions and holes what serve as...(3 functions)

1. sites of attachment for muscles ligaments and tendons
2. joint surfaces
3. opening (conduits) for blood vessels and nerves

25

projections are bone marking that_______ _________

bulge outward

26

list the 4 types of projections

1. tuberosity - rounded projection
2. crest - narrow prominent ridge of bone
2. trochanter - large, blunt, irregular surface
4. line - narrow ridge of bone

27

what is a tubercle

it's a small, rounded projection

28

what is a condyle

it's a raised area above a condyle (a projection - sites of muscle and ligament attachment)

29

define spine

a sharp, slender projection

30

define process

any bony prominence (a projection)

31

list the 4 projections that help for form joints

1. head - bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
2. faucet - smooth, nearly flat, articular surface
3. condyle - rounded articular projection
4. ramus - armlike bar of bone

32

list the six bone markings that are classified as depressions and openings

1. meatus - canal-like passageway
2. sinus - cavity within a bone
3. fossa - shallow, basin-like depression
4. groove - furrow
5. fissure - narrow, slitlike opening
6. foramen - round or oval opening through a bone

33

what are the 3 functional zones involved in long bone growth?

1. growth zone
2. transformation zone
3. osteogenic zone

34

the function of the growth zone is...?

cartilage cells undergo mitosis, pushing the epiphysis away form the diaphysis

35

describe the function of the transformation zone

older cells enlarge, the matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die and the matrix begins to deteriorate

36

define osteogenic zone

new bone formation occurs

37

cartilage continually ________ and is _________ by bone

grows/replaced

38

when bone is added and resorbed it's known as

remodeling

39

during infancy and childhood _______________ is stimulated by ____________

epiphyseal plate activity/growth hormone

40

what are the 3 functions of testosterone and estrogen during puberty?

1. promote growth spurts
2. cause masculinization and feminization of specific parts of the skeleton
3. induce epiphyseal plate closure - ending longitudinal bone growth

41

bone remodeling consists of ___________ (2 things)

bone deposit and bone resorption

42

spongy bone is replaced

every 3- 4 years

43

compact bone is replaced

every 10 years

44

what are the 2 remodeling units? (the bone builders and bone breakers)

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

45

_____________ occurs where bone is injured or added strength is needed

bone deposition

46

what requires a diet rich in protein, vitamins C,D and A, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and manganese

bone deposition

47

osteoclasts accomplish

bone resorption

48

what are the 2 things that osteoclasts secrete?

1. lysosomal enzymes - they digest organic matrix
2. acids - they convert calcium salts into soluble forms

49

list the 5 reasons calcium is necessary

1. transmission of nerve impluses
2. muscle contraction
3. blood coagulation
4. secretion by glands and nerve cells
5. cell division

50

how are bone fractures classified?

1. the position of the bone after the fracture
2. completeness of the break
3. the orientation of the bone to the long axis
4. whether or not the bone ends penetrate the skin

51

define a compression fracture

when the bone is crushed, common in porous bones

52

define a depressed fracture

when a broken bone portion is pressed inward, a typical skull fracture

53

what is an incomplete fracture called (when one end of the bone breaks and the other end bends - common in children)?

greenstick

54

define a spiral fracture

a ragged break when the bone is excessively twisted - common in sports injuries

55

list the 4 fracture classifications

non-displaced
displaced
complete
incomplete

56

define an incomplete fracture

when the bone is not broken all the way through

57

define a complete fracture

when the bone is broken all the way through

58

define a displaced fracture

when the bone ends are out of normal alignment

59

define a non-displaced fracturte

when the bone ends retain their normal position

60

when the fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone it's called...?

a linear fracture

61

a fracture perpendicular to the long axis of the bone (a break along the cross section)

transverse fracture

62

when the bone ends penetrate the skin

a compound (open) fracture

63

when bone ends do not penetrate the skin

a simple (closed) fracture

64

a comminuted fracture is when

the bone fragments into 3 or more pieces (common in the elderly)

65

an epiphyseal fracture is...

when the epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal line - occurs where cartilage cells are dying

66

list the 4 steps involved in healing a fracture

1. a hematoma forms
2. fibrocartilaginous callus forms
3. bony callus forms
4. bone remodeling occurs

67

osteomalacia

bones are inadequately mineralized causing softened weakened bones
main symptom is pain when weight is applied
caused by insufficient calcium or vitamin D deficiency

68

rickets

bones of children inadequately mineralized causing softened weakened bones
bowed legs and deformities of the pelvis, skull and rib cage are common
caused by insufficient calcium or vitamin D deficiency

69

osteoporosis

a group of diseases in which the rate of reabsorption exceeds the rate of bone deposit - spine is most vulnerable
occurs often in postmenopausal women

70

treatment of osteoporosis

calcium and vitamin D supplements
increased weigth bearing exercise
hormone replacement therapy

71

hrt controversial because

it increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and breast cancer

72

hrt is frustrating because

it does not reverse osteoporosis, merely slows it

73

things that cause bone loss

salt amenorrhea
caffeine calorie restriction
alcohol low body weight
excess animal protein medications
smoking