Visual Anatomy and Physiology
The Integumentary System is divided into five components?
Skin, hair, glands, nails, and nerve endings.
what is skin?
Skin is considered an organ because it consists of different tissues combined to perform a specific function.
What is the largest organ in the body?
Skin is the largest organ of the body in surface and in weight
what is the study of dermatology?
Dermatology is a medical specialty concerning the diagnosing and treatment of skin disorders
What is the Anatomy of Skin? (Structure)
Epidermis - The thinner outter layer of the skin
Dermis - thicker connective tissue layer
Hypodermis - the subcutaneous layer, muscle and bone.
What is the Physiology of Skin? (Function)
- physical barrier that protects underlying tissues from injury, UV light and bacterial invasion.
- mechanical barrier is part non specific immunity (skin, tears and saliva).
2- Regulation of body temperature
- high temperature or strenuous exercise; sweat is evaporated from the skin surface to cool it down.
vasodilation (increases blood flow) and vasoconstriction (decrease in blood flow) regulates body temp.
- nerve endings and receptor cells that detect stimuli to temp., pain, pressure and touch.
- sweat removes water and small amounts of salt, uric acid and ammonia from the body surface
5- Blood reservoir
- dermis houses an extensive network of blood vessels carrying 8-10% of total blood flow in a resting adult.
6- Synthesis of Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
-UV rays in sunlight stimulate the production of Vit. D. Enzymes in the kidney and liver modify and convert to final form; calcitriol (most active form of Vit. D.) Calcitriol aids in absorption of calcium from foods and is considered a hormone.
Epidermis contains the following:
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with four distinct cell types and five distinct layers.
The four distinct cell types in the epidermis are:
1. keratinocytes are most abundant in the following:
- produce keratin (fibrous protein)
- protective; waterproofing the skin
- continuous mitosis
- form in the deepest layer called the stratum basale
- cells push their way up to the surface where they are dead cells filled with keratin; will slough off. Regenerates every 25-45 days.
2. Melanocytes are most abundant in the following:
- cells produce brownish/black pigment
called melanin. (8% of epidermal cells)
- stratum basale
- branching processes (dendrites)
- melanin accumulates in melanosomes and transported along dendrites of the melanocytes to keratinocytes.
- melanin accumulates on the superficial aspect of the keratinocyte shielding its nucleus from harmful UV light.
- lack of melanin: albino
3. Merkel cells are most abundant in the following:
- stratum basale
- epidermis of hairless skin
- attach to keratinocytes by desmosomes
- make contact with a sensory neuron ending called a Merkel disc (touch).
4. Langerhans’ cells:
- star-shaped cells arising from bone marrow that migrate to epidermis.
- epidermal dendritic cells (macrophages)
- interact with a WBC called a T- helper cell
- easily damaged by UV light.
The five layer of the epidermis are?
1- Stratum corneum (horny layer)
- layer has many rows of dead cells filled with keratin
- continuously shed and replaced
- effective barrier against light, heat and bacteria
- 20-30 cell layers thick
- dandruff and flakes
- 40 lbs. of skin flakes in a lifetime (dust mites!)
2. Stratum lucidum
- seen in thick skin of the palms and soles of feet.
- 3-5 rows of clear flat dead cells
- keratohyalin (precursor) to keratin
3. Stratum granulosum
- 3-5 rows of flattened cells
- nuclei of cells flatten out
- organelles disintegrate cells eventually die
- keratohyalin granules (darkly stained) accumulate
- lamellated granules secrete glycolipids into extracellular spaces to slow water loss in the epidermis
4. Stratum spinosum: “spiny layer”
- 8-10 rows of polyhedral (many sided) cells
- appearance of prickly spines
- shrink when prepared for slide
- melanin granules and Langerhans’ cell predominate
5. Stratum basale: deepest epidermal layer
- attached to dermis
- single row of cells
- mostly columnar keratinocytes
- with rapid mitotic division
- stratum germinativum
- contain merkel cells and melanocytes
The Dermis consist of the following:
- flexible and strong connective tissue
- elastic, reticular and collagen fibers
- cells: fibroblasts, macrophages (WBC),
mast cells (histamine).
- nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels
- oil and sweat glands originate
- two layers: papillary and reticular
1- Papillary layer consist of the following:
- loose connective tissue with nipple like surface projection called dermal papilla.
- contain pain receptors
- contain touch receptors (Meissner’s corpuscles)
- dermal ridges-
pattern called fingerprints
2- Reticular layer consist of the following:
- dense irregular c.t.
- collagen fibers offer strength
- holds water
- dermal tearing causes stretch marks.
Skin color: attributed to melanin, hemoglobin and carotene. Race is determined by amount of melanin not # of melanocytes.
Local accumulation of melanin will result in.
Freckles and pigmented moles
Melanin is made through what?
Interaction with tyrosinase present in melanocytes
UV light stimulates what?
UV light stimulates melanin production
Excessive UV light can cause the following?
Excessive UV light can damage DNA and cause solar elastosis (elastin fibers clump)
Carotene is formed from what Vit.
Carotene is from from Vit. A and deposits in stratum corneum and imparts an orange tone to skin
Hemoglobin (blood) will impart pinkish tones to skin. Blushing
1- Redness (erythema) - reddened skin, embarrassment, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy
2- Pallor/blanching - pale skin, emotional distress or anemia, low blood pressure
3- Jaundice - liver disease, bile deposited in tissue
4- Bronzing - bronze coloration (Addison's disease) hypofunction of adrenal cortex
5- Black & blue - bruises, escaped blood clots in tissue spaces (clotted blood masses = hematomas)
How does melanin affect hair color:
Dark hair: mostly melanin
Blond and red hair: melanin with Fe and S.
Gray hair: loss of pigment (decr. tyrosinase)
White hair: air bubbles in the medullary hair shaft.
- composed of dead columns of keratinized cells.
- shaft: is the superficial portion of hair
- root: below the surface in the dermis
Shaft and root are composed of three layers:
inner medulla, middle cortex and outer cuticle.
Inner medulla has 2-3 rows of polyhedral cells where pigment is located
Cortex is major portion of shaft
Cuticle is scaly and heavily keratinized (shingles)
where is terminal hair located?
axillary and pubic region. Grow in response to sex hormones
excessive hairiness: incr. androgens
surrounds the root.
The hair Bulb
is the enlargement at the end of the follicle.
- Also houses the germinal layer
Papilla (nipple like)
is located in the bulb and is where the blood supply nourishes the hair
Arrector pili (pl. pilorum)
is smooth muscle located in the dermis and is attached to the side of the hair shaft.
fright, cold and emotions will contract muscle and pull hair in vertical position. “Goose bumps”.
Two types of glands exist in the integument.
- Sebaceous glands (oil glands)
- Sudoriferous glands (sweat glands)
Sebaceous glands: (holocrine glands)
- connected to hair follicle
- not found on palms and soles of feet
- secretes sebum (fats, cholesterol and proteins
- keep hair from drying out, keeps skin moist
- whiteheads, blackheads and acne
Whitehead is formed -
When the trapped sebum and bacteria stay below the skin surface, a whitehead is formed.
Blackhead is formed -
A blackhead occurs when the trapped sebum and bacteria partially open to the surface and turn black due to melanin, the skin's pigment. Blackheads can last for a long time because the contents very slowly drain to the surface
Sudoriferous glands: (exocrine glands)
- millions located throughout the skin
- two types:
- eccrine: more common (merocrine)
- originate in subQ layer
- duct empties on skin surface
- palms and soles of feet
- sweat is watery (99% H20)
- sweating regulated by
sympathetic nervous system
- apocrine glands are found in which region?
axillary and pubic region
- duct empties onto hair follicle
- viscous fluid
- causes body odor (“b-o “) when bacteria break it down
located in ear only
- modified apocrine glands
- originate in Sub Q layer
- ducts open onto EAM.
- produces cerumen (ear wax)
brown sticky substance that prevents foreign material from entering.
- Produced by cells in the epidermis
- Nail plate (body): visible portion
- Nail root: located under cuticle
- Lunula: half moon crescent shaped
white portion under cuticle
- Nail bed: located under nail plate
- Hypoxia: decr. oxygen in blood, nail bed will turn blue- cyanosis
- Exteroceptors (stimulus outside of body)
- Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles: deep pressure and stretch
- Meissner’s (tactile) corpuscles: light touch, vibration and discriminative touch.
- hair root plexus
- free (naked) nerve endings: nociceptors(pain) and thermoreceptors( hot – deep and cold- surface)
- Ruffini’s corpuscles: deep pressure
- called subcutaneous, Sub-Q or superficialfascia
- anchors skin to underlying structures
- contains adipose tissue and blood vessels
- common site for injection
flat spot on skin with color (freckle)
round and temp. elevation of skin (hives)
solid elevated area, epidermal and papillary
large papules extending into subcutaneous layer (cyst)
papule with fluid core (varicella zoster virus)
papule with pus core (acne)
ruptured vesicle (ulcer)
benign tumor in the dermis (capillary and cavernous)
enlargement of the sebaceous gland
irritating itching sensation of the skin
inflammation around abnormally active sebaceous glands
Basal cell carcinoma
malignant cancer originating in the germinative layer
Squamous cell carcinoma
malignant cancer originating in the top layer of the skin