Exercise 9: Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages
small rounded projection
narrow ridge of bone
large rounded projection
structure supported on neck
rounded, convex projection
Round or oval opening through a bone
Large, irregularly shaped projection
Raised area on or above a condyle
Projection or prominence
smooth, nearly flat articular surface
The four major anatomical classifications of bones are long, short, flat, and irregular. Which category has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume?
contains spongy bone in adults
made of compact bone
site of blood cell formation
J, Red Bone Marrow
major submembranous site of osteoclasts
D, endosteum & I, periosteum
scientific term for bone shaft
contains fat in adult bones
G, Medullary Cavity
growth plate remnant
E, Epiphyseal line
major submembranous site of osteoblasts
D, endosteum & I, periosteum
What differences between compact and spongy bone can be seen with the naked eye?
compact bone diaphysis looks solid, practically without holes or gaps-
spongy bone is metaphysis and the epiphysis on the other hand are composed of thousands of spicules or trabeculae of bone, interconnected
What is the function of the periosteum?
The Periosteum serves as an attachment point for muscles and bones through tendons and ligaments.
Trace the route taken by nutrients through the bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna.
The path is: Periosteum, Perforating Canals, Central Canals, Canaliculi, Lancunae, Osteocytes
layers of bony matrix around a central canal
site of osteocytes
longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves
minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon
inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substances
On the photomicrograph of bone on the right (365x), identify all structures maned in the key and bracket an osteon.
B. Concentric Lamellae
D. Central canal
What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?
Gives bone flexibility & strength
Name the important organic bone components
Collagen fibers, osteocytes
Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?
Gives bone hardness & compressional strength.
Baking removes _______________ from bone. Soaking bone in acid removes _________________.
baking removes what from bone? ORGANIC
soaking in acid removes? MINERALS
Compare and contrast events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate?
The cartilage cells at the epiphyseal side are continuing to grow and divide mitotically, while the ones on the diaphyseal side are aging, dying and then osteoblasts move in to form bone.
Type of cartilage that supports the external ear
Type of cartilage between the vertebrae
Type of cartilage that forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)
Type of cartilage that forms the epiglottis
Type of cartilage forming the articular cartilages
Type of cartilage that forms the meniscus
Type of cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum
Type of cartilage thats the most effective at resisting compression
The most springy and flexible type of cartilage
The most abundant type of cartilage