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Exercise 9: Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages

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created 3 years ago by jncanf
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pg. 119 - pg. 122

updated 2 years ago by jncanf

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  • 1
    spine
    sharp,slender process
  • 2
    tubercle
    small rounded projection
  • 3
    crest
    narrow ridge of bone
  • 4
    tuberosity
    large rounded projection
  • 5
    head
    structure supported on neck
  • 6
    ramus
    armlike projection
  • 7
    condyle
    rounded, convex projection
  • 8
    fissure
    narrow opening
  • 9
    Meatus
    Canal-like structure
  • 10
    Foramen
    Round or oval opening through a bone
  • 11
    Fossa
    Shallow depression
  • 12
    Sinus
    Air-filled cavity
  • 13
    Trochanter
    Large, irregularly shaped projection
  • 14
    Epicondyle
    Raised area on or above a condyle
  • 15
    Process
    Projection or prominence
  • 16
    facet
    smooth, nearly flat articular surface
  • 17
    The four major anatomical classifications of bones are long, short, flat, and irregular. Which category has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume?
    long bones
  • 18
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  • 21
    contains spongy bone in adults
    F, epiphysis
  • 22
    made of compact bone
    C, diaphysis
  • 23
    site of blood cell formation
    J, Red Bone Marrow
  • 24
    major submembranous site of osteoclasts
    D, endosteum & I, periosteum
  • 25
    scientific term for bone shaft
    C, diaphysis
  • 26
    contains fat in adult bones
    G, Medullary Cavity
  • 27
    growth plate remnant
    E, Epiphyseal line
  • 28
    major submembranous site of osteoblasts
    D, endosteum & I, periosteum
  • 29
    What differences between compact and spongy bone can be seen with the naked eye?
    compact bone diaphysis looks solid, practically without holes or gaps-

    spongy bone is metaphysis and the epiphysis on the other hand are composed of thousands of spicules or trabeculae of bone, interconnected
  • 30
    What is the function of the periosteum?
    The Periosteum serves as an attachment point for muscles and bones through tendons and ligaments.
  • 31
    Trace the route taken by nutrients through the bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna.
    The path is: Periosteum, Perforating Canals, Central Canals, Canaliculi, Lancunae, Osteocytes
  • 32
    concentric lamellae
    layers of bony matrix around a central canal
  • 33
    lacunae
    site of osteocytes
  • 34
    central canal
    longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves
  • 35
    canaliculi
    minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon
  • 36
    matrix
    inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substances
  • 37
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    On the photomicrograph of bone on the right (365x), identify all structures maned in the key and bracket an osteon.
    A. Canaliculi
    B. Concentric Lamellae
    C. Lacunae
    D. Central canal
    E. Matrix
  • 38
    What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?
    Gives bone flexibility & strength
  • 39
    Name the important organic bone components
    Collagen fibers, osteocytes
  • 40
    Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?
    Gives bone hardness & compressional strength.
  • 41
    Baking removes _______________ from bone. Soaking bone in acid removes _________________.
    baking removes what from bone? ORGANIC
    soaking in acid removes? MINERALS
  • 42
    Compare and contrast events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate?
    The cartilage cells at the epiphyseal side are continuing to grow and divide mitotically, while the ones on the diaphyseal side are aging, dying and then osteoblasts move in to form bone.
  • 43
    Type of cartilage that supports the external ear
    Elastic
  • 44
    Type of cartilage between the vertebrae
    Fibrocartilage
  • 45
    Type of cartilage that forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)
    Hyaline
  • 46
    Type of cartilage that forms the epiglottis
    Elastic
  • 47
    Type of cartilage forming the articular cartilages
    Hyaline
  • 48
    Type of cartilage that forms the meniscus
    Fibrocartilage
  • 49
    Type of cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum
    Hyaline
  • 50
    Type of cartilage thats the most effective at resisting compression
    Fibrocartilage
  • 51
    The most springy and flexible type of cartilage
    Elastic
  • 52
    The most abundant type of cartilage
    Hyaline