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Exercise 9: Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages

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created 3 years ago by jncanf
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pg. 119 - pg. 122

updated 3 years ago by jncanf

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1

spine

sharp,slender process

2

tubercle

small rounded projection

3

crest

narrow ridge of bone

4

tuberosity

large rounded projection

5

head

structure supported on neck

6

ramus

armlike projection

7

condyle

rounded, convex projection

8

fissure

narrow opening

9

Meatus

Canal-like structure

10

Foramen

Round or oval opening through a bone

11

Fossa

Shallow depression

12

Sinus

Air-filled cavity

13

Trochanter

Large, irregularly shaped projection

14

Epicondyle

Raised area on or above a condyle

15

Process

Projection or prominence

16

facet

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

17

The four major anatomical classifications of bones are long, short, flat, and irregular. Which category has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume?

long bones

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21

contains spongy bone in adults

F, epiphysis

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made of compact bone

C, diaphysis

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site of blood cell formation

J, Red Bone Marrow

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major submembranous site of osteoclasts

D, endosteum & I, periosteum

25

scientific term for bone shaft

C, diaphysis

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contains fat in adult bones

G, Medullary Cavity

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growth plate remnant

E, Epiphyseal line

28

major submembranous site of osteoblasts

D, endosteum & I, periosteum

29

What differences between compact and spongy bone can be seen with the naked eye?

compact bone diaphysis looks solid, practically without holes or gaps-

spongy bone is metaphysis and the epiphysis on the other hand are composed of thousands of spicules or trabeculae of bone, interconnected

30

What is the function of the periosteum?

The Periosteum serves as an attachment point for muscles and bones through tendons and ligaments.

31

Trace the route taken by nutrients through the bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna.

The path is: Periosteum, Perforating Canals, Central Canals, Canaliculi, Lancunae, Osteocytes

32

concentric lamellae

layers of bony matrix around a central canal

33

lacunae

site of osteocytes

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central canal

longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves

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canaliculi

minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon

36

matrix

inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substances

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On the photomicrograph of bone on the right (365x), identify all structures maned in the key and bracket an osteon.

A. Canaliculi
B. Concentric Lamellae
C. Lacunae
D. Central canal
E. Matrix

38

What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?

Gives bone flexibility & strength

39

Name the important organic bone components

Collagen fibers, osteocytes

40

Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?

Gives bone hardness & compressional strength.

41

Baking removes _______________ from bone. Soaking bone in acid removes _________________.

baking removes what from bone? ORGANIC
soaking in acid removes? MINERALS

42

Compare and contrast events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate?

The cartilage cells at the epiphyseal side are continuing to grow and divide mitotically, while the ones on the diaphyseal side are aging, dying and then osteoblasts move in to form bone.

43

Type of cartilage that supports the external ear

Elastic

44

Type of cartilage between the vertebrae

Fibrocartilage

45

Type of cartilage that forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)

Hyaline

46

Type of cartilage that forms the epiglottis

Elastic

47

Type of cartilage forming the articular cartilages

Hyaline

48

Type of cartilage that forms the meniscus

Fibrocartilage

49

Type of cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum

Hyaline

50

Type of cartilage thats the most effective at resisting compression

Fibrocartilage

51

The most springy and flexible type of cartilage

Elastic

52

The most abundant type of cartilage

Hyaline