Exam 1 Terms

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1

situational approach

individuals behave differently across situations

2

situational-specific sport inventory

Group Environment Questionnaire

3

Trait anxiety

general anxiety

4

interactionalist approach

situational and personal variables are codeterminants of behavior

5

trait approach

personality does not change much over time

6

role-related behavior

most superficial and therefore most easily changed part of a personality structure

7

psychological core

the most basic level of your personality

8

typical responses

the way we each learn to adjust to the environment

9

iceberg profile

how successful athletes typical score on the POMS

10

projective testing

showing a person a picture of an athlete arguing with an official and then asking the athlete to write about what is happening

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intraindividual approach

individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory

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Ferruccio Antonelli

first president of the International Society for Sport Psychology

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AAASP

responsible for developing standards for certification of individuals working in applied sport psychology settings

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Franklin Henry

the leading researcher during Period 3 (1938-1965)

15

Coleman Griffith

established the first research laboratory in sport psychology

16

professional practice knowledge

knowledge gained through experience working in exercise and sport science field situations

17

theory

the ultimate goal of science

18

"Doc" Counsilman

successful coach is noted for adopting a sport science approach in his coaching

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intuition

least reliable method of obtaining knowledge

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scientific method

most reliable method of obtaining knowledge

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social facilitation theory

performance on well-learned tasks is facilitated by an audience

22

drive theory

theory predicts a linear relationship between arousal and performance

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Susan Harter

Competence motivation theory

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arousal

intensity of motivation

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stress

a substantial imbalance between demand and response capability under conditions where failure has important consequences

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somatic state anxiety

a moment-to-moment change in one's perceived physiological activation

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learned helplessness

feeling that actions have no impact on desired outcomes

28

zone of optimal functioning approach

each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency

29

catastrophe theory

complex interaction between physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety

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multidimensional anxiety theory

a negative relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance and an inverted-U relationship between somatic anxiety and performance

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reversal theory

the relationship between arousal and performance depends on one's interpretation of the arousal level

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Inverted-U Hypothesis

arousal can be either too low or too high and top performance occurs at a moderate level of arousal

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competitiveness

the sport-specific form of achievement motivation

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motivation

the intensity and direction of one's effort

35

high achievers

focus on pride

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low achievers

focus on shame

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outcome goal orientation

comparing your ability to others and winning

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one's ability

stable, internal

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behavior modification

An effective technique to use to change undesirable participant motives

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attribution theory

how individuals explain their success and failure

41

need achievement theory

best at predicting 50-50 chance of success situations

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Self-competition

achievement motivation; competition

43

Norman Triplett

conducts first social psychology and sport psychology experiment

44

Bruce Ogilvie

Wrote Problem Athletes and How to Handle Them

45

Robert Weinberg

One of the authors of the text

46

study

involves an investigator observing or assessing factors without changing the environment

47

experiment

investigator manipulates the variables along with observing them

48

external validity

whether the issue has true significance or utility in the real world

49

internal validity

how well scientists conform to the rules of scientific methodology and how systematic and controlled they were in conducting their study

50

psychophysiological orientation

Examine the physiological processes of the brain and their influences on the physical activity