1) Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?
A) cardiac output
B) peripheral resistance
C) emotional state
D) blood volume
2) Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?
B) atrial natriuretic peptide
C) angiotensin II
D) nitric acid
3) Which statement best describes arteries?
A) All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
B) All carry blood away from the heart.
C) All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
D) Only large arteries are lined with endothelium.
4) Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica externa
D) basement membrane
5) Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.
6) The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________.
A) hepatic portal circulation
B) pulmonary circulation
C) coronary circulation
D) cerebral circulation
7) The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.
A) elastic arteries
B) muscular arteries
8) Aldosterone will ________.
A) promote an increase in blood pressure
B) promote a decrease in blood volume
C) result in a larger output of urine
D) decrease sodium reabsorption
9) The pulse pressure is ________.
A) systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure
B) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
C) systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure
D) diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure)
10) Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign?
A) cold, clammy skin
B) increased heart rate
C) rapid, thready pulse
D) rapidly falling blood pressure
11) Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?
A) Blood will be diverted to the digestive organs.
B) The skin will be cold and clammy.
C) Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
D) Blood flow to the kidneys increase.
12) Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?
A) Their prime function is the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and tissue cells.
B) The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.
C) They distribute blood to various parts of the body.
D) They contain a large quantity of elastic tissue.
13) Which of the following is true about veins?
A) Venous valves are formed from the tunica media.
B) Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time.
C) Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.
D) Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
14) Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?
A) neural controls
B) baroreceptor-initiated reflexes
C) chemoreceptor-initiated reflexes
D) renal regulation
15) Peripheral resistance ________.
A) decreases with increasing length of the blood vessel
B) increases as blood vessel diameter increases
C) increases as blood viscosity increases
D) is not a major factor in blood pressure in healthy individuals
16) Brain blood flow autoregulation ________.
A) is less sensitive to pH than to a decreased oxygen level
B) causes constriction of cerebral blood vessels in response to a drop in systemic blood pressure
C) is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist
D) is controlled by cardiac centers in the pons
17) Blood flow to the skin ________.
A) is controlled mainly by decreasing pH
B) increases when environmental temperature rises
C) increases when body temperature drops so that the skin does not freeze
D) is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells
18) Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?
A) hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
B) hydrostatic pressure only
C) blood volume and viscosity
D) plasma and formed element concentration
19) Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?
A) hypovolemic, caused by increased blood volume
B) cardiogenic, which results from any defect in blood vessels
C) vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
D) circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant
20) Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica externa
D) basement membrane
21) The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________.
A) the only factor that influences resistance
B) significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
C) significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter
D) insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary
22) The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________.
A) the form of shock caused by anaphylaxis
B) any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally
C) shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea
D) always fatal
23) In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic pressure ________.
A) and osmotic pressure are the same
B) is the same as capillary blood pressure
C) generally forces fluid from the interstitial space into the capillaries
D) is completely canceled out by osmotic pressure
24) The hepatic portal vein ________.
A) is actually an artery
B) carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver
C) carries oxygen-rich blood from the liver to the viscera
D) carries blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava
25) The term ductus venosus refers to ________.
A) a fetal shunt that bypasses the lungs
B) damage to the valves in the veins, leading to varicose veins
C) a condition of the aged in which the arteries lose elasticity
D) a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver
26) Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable?
A) Capillaries are fragile and high pressures would rupture them.
B) Most capillaries are extremely permeable and thus even low pressures force solute-containing fluid out of the bloodstream.
C) Low blood pressure is more desirable than high blood pressure.
27) Which of the choices below does not involve tissue perfusion?
A) delivery of oxygen and nutrients to, and removal of wastes from, tissue cells
B) gas exchange in the lungs
C) absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
D) blood clotting
28) Which of the following do not influence arterial pulse rate?
B) postural changes
D) the vessel selected to palpate
29) Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?
A) superior vena cava, right atrium, and left ventricle
B) right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
C) left ventricle, aorta, and inferior vena cava
D) right atrium, aorta, and left ventricle
30) Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica externa
D) tunica adventitia
31) The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.
A) muscular arteries
B) elastic arteries
32) Fenestrated capillaries ________.
A) are not more permeable than continuous capillaries
B) are not common in endocrine organs and in areas where capillary absorption is an important function
C) do not occur in the glomerular capillaries of the kidneys
D) are not found in the brain
33) Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________.
C) thoroughfare channels
34) Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.
A) activity of skeletal muscles
B) pressure changes in the thorax
C) venous valves
D) urinary output
35) Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension?
A) 120/80 in a 30-year-old man
B) 140/90 in a 70-year-old woman
C) 170/96 in a 50-year-old man
D) 110/60 in a 20-year-old woman
36) Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.
A) An increase in cardiac output corresponds to a decrease in blood pressure, due to the increased delivery.
B) Systemic vasodilation would increase blood pressure, due to diversion of blood to essential areas.
C) Excess protein production would decrease blood pressure.
D) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.
37) Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________.
A) nervous control that operates via reflex arcs involving baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and higher brain centers
B) the dural sinus reflex
C) renal regulation via the renin-angiotensin system of vasoconstriction
D) chemical controls such as atrial natriuretic peptide
38) The velocity of blood flow is ________.
A) in direct proportion to the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels
B) slower in the arteries than in capillaries because arteries possess a relatively large diameter
C) slower in the veins than in the capillaries because veins have a large diameter
D) slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest
39) Select the correct statement about blood flow.
A) It is relatively constant through all body organs.
B) It is measured in mm Hg.
C) It is greatest where resistance is highest.
D) Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output.
40) A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________.
A) left side of the head and neck
B) myocardium of the heart
C) left upper arm
D) right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
41) Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ________.
A) skin temperature
C) intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms
D) the hypothalamic "thermostat"
42) A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________.
A) increased work of the left ventricle
B) increased incidence of coronary artery disease
C) increased damage to blood vessel endothelium
D) decreased size of the heart muscle
43) The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarily operate via all but which of the following?
A) reflex arcs involving baroreceptors
B) altering blood volume
C) reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers
44) Secondary hypertension can be caused by ________.
45) Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?
46) Normal average blood pressure for a newborn baby is ________.
47) If blood pressure is almost normal in a person who has lost blood, does that mean the tissues are receiving adequate blood flow?
C) not necessarily
48) What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth?
A) ligamentum teres; fossa ovalis
B) fossa ovalis; ligamentum arteriosum
C) ligamentum arteriosum; ligamentum teres
D) ligamentum arteriosum; fossa ovalis
49) Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds?
A) a decrease in local tissue oxygen content
B) an increase in local tissue carbon dioxide
C) a local increase in histamine
D) a local increase in pH
50) Arteriole blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?
A) increasing stroke volume
B) increasing heart rate
C) rising blood volume
D) falling blood volume
E) all of these
51) The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?
A) a decrease in carbon dioxide
B) changes in arterial pressure
C) a decrease in oxygen levels
D) an increase in oxygen levels