After Joe has a stroke, his doctor asks Joe to touch his right pointer finger to his chin—but Joe is unable to move his right hand. However, when the doctor stimulates Joe's pointer finger with a painful stimulus, Joe's muscles quickly move his hand away from the stimulus. The doctor concludes that ______.
the stroke caused damage to Joe's frontal eye field which interfered with his effort to touch his chin
the stroke caused damage to Joe's right primary motor cortex
the stroke caused damage to Joe's left premotor cortex
based on the doctor's observations, none of the listed answers are correct conclusions
A patient reports that she has become completely deaf—she can't hear anything. Thorough tests on her ears indicate that her ears have not been damaged. Additional tests reveal that her deafness has been caused by damage to her ______.
primary somatosensory cortex
auditory association area
somatosensory association cortex
None of the listed responses is correct.
At age 79, Mrs. X is diagnosed with a disorder that severely impairs her logical judgment. Medical imaging techniques show that this has been most likely caused by brain damage in a ______.
Which of the following hypothalamic control centers would you predict is the LEAST important for survival?
autonomic control center
temperature control center
Specific motor and sensory functions are localized in specific areas called domains, whereas memory and language have overlapping domains.
The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate.
The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro.
A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei.
One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing.
Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus.
Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain.
Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________.
The arbor vitae refers to ________.
the pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum
cerebellar white matter
cerebellar gray matter
The brain stem consists of the ________.
cerebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla
midbrain, medulla, and pons
pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain
The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.
What cells line the ventricles of the brain?
The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.
Which fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres?
Which of the following best describes the cerebrum?
visceral command center
motor command center
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.
Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?
The cerebral cortex contains three kinds of functional areas.
Each hemisphere is chiefly concerned with sensory and motor functions of the contralateral side of the body.
The hemispheres are exactly equal in function.
No functional area of the cortex works alone.
The central sulcus separates which lobes?
temporal from parietal
frontal from parietal
frontal from temporal
parietal from occipital
Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?
Which of the following is not a role of the basal nuclei?
initiating protective reflex actions
inhibiting unnecessary or antagonistic movements
regulating attention and cognition
controlling starting and stopping movements
Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.
The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.
Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.
supplementary and cerebellar-pontine
pyramidal and corticospinal
segmental and nigrostriatal
extrapyramidal and rubrospinal
Broca's area ________.
is considered a motor speech area
corresponds to Brodmann's area 8
serves the recognition of complex objects
is usually found in the right hemisphere
Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?
limbic association area
posterior association area
combined primary somatosensory cortex and somatosensory association cortex
The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.
nutrients such as glucose
metabolic waste such as urea
All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.
The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________.
Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.
loss of proprioception
loss of body temperature control
production of excessive quantities of urine
Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________.
Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________.
spinal cord disease
Which of the following is (are) involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?
White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations except the ________.
outer portion of the spinal cord
Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.
primary motor cortex
Nuclei relating to the startle reflex are located in the corpora quadrigemina of the midbrain.
The three basic regions of the cerebrum are the cerebral cortical gray matter, internal white matter, and the superior and inferior colliculi.
Which brain nucleus is the body's "biological clock"?
If the caudal portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly the ________.
cranial nerves would not form
telencephalon would cease development
hindbrain would not be present
spinal cord may be affected
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
Damage to the primary auditory cortex results in the inability to interpret pitch, loudness, and location.
Damage to the primary motor cortex results only in the loss of both voluntary muscle control and reflexes.
Damage to the premotor cortex results in loss of motor skills programmed in that area but movement is still possible.
Damage to the primary visual cortex results in functional blindness.
The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.
visceral sensory area
Which part of the brain is the "executive suite" for all brain activity?
Which parts of the brain constitute the "emotional brain" known as the limbic system?
diencephalic and brain stem structures
cerebral and diencephalic structures
cerebral and brain stem structures
diencephalic and mesencephalic structures
Which type of white matter fiber tract connects the two cerebral hemispheres?
Which part of the brain is considered the "gateway" to the cerebral cortex?
Which of the following best describes the hypothalamus?
relay station for the special senses
visceral control center of the body
somatic motor control center
gateway to the cerebellum
Which part of the brain stem houses the reflex centers for respiration and cardiovascular functioning?
Which part of the brain processes inputs received from the cerebral motor cortex, brain stem nuclei, and various sensory receptors, and then uses this information to coordinate somatic motor output so that smooth, well-timed movements occur?
The middle primary brain vesicle, the mesencephalon, gives rise to which adult brain structure?
Which of the following is true of the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain?
The longitudinal fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum.
The cerebral hemispheres account for about 83% of total brain mass.
Nearly the entire surface of the cerebral hemispheres is marked by elevated ridges called sulci.
Nearly the entire surface of the cerebral hemispheres is marked by shallow grooves called gyri.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of functional areas within the cerebral cortex?
Which of the following are motor areas of the cerebral cortex that lie in the posterior part of the frontal lobes and control voluntary movement?
Broca's area; posterior association area; auditory areas; visual areas
primary motor cortex; premotor cortex; Broca's area; frontal eye field
primary somatosensory cortex; somatosensory association cortex; visual areas
primary motor cortex; premotor cortex; prefrontal cortex; gustatory cortex
Which of the following areas of the brain is responsible for spatial discrimination?
primary somatosensory cortex
Which of the following areas of the brain controls voluntary movement of the eyes?
primary visual cortex
frontal eye field
visual association area
Parkinson's disease results from degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the __________.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus?
regulation of body temperature
regulation of food intake
secretion of the hormone melatonin
__________ causes a person to lapse abruptly into REM sleep from the awake state.
Patients who have lesions involving Broca's area __________.
do not understand written communications, but they can speak clearly and intelligibly
do not understand language
can communicate through writing or sign language, but they cannot speak
can understand language, but have difficulty speaking
Which meninx is a delicate connective tissue membrane that clings tightly to the brain like cellophane wrap following its every convolution?
periosteal layer of the dura mater
meningeal layer of the dura mater
Select the true statement regarding first-order neurons.
First-order neuron cell bodies reside in a ganglion.
First-order neurons have cell bodies in the thalamus.
First-order neuron cell bodies reside in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
First-order neuron cell bodies reside in the anterior horn of the spinal cord.
During an epileptic seizure, the triggering of convulsions would not directly involve the uncontrolled activity of neurons located in the ______.
primary motor cortex
Which of the following is a characteristic of a coma but is NOT a characteristic of sleep?
absence of brain waves ("flat EEG")
irreversible brain damage
continuously reduced mitochondrial activity in brain neurons
All of the listed responses are correct.
Which of the following does not occur during a narcoleptic sleep episode?
increased heart rate
increased oxygen use
increased gastrointestinal activity
In anterograde amnesia ______.
there is an inhibition of afferent inputs to the cerebral cortex
LTM (long term memory) is not disrupted
communication between the medial temporal lobe and the association cortex remains unaffected
declarative memory is not significantly altered
Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano?
Declarative memory ________.
is hard to unlearn when learned once
is the ability to learn specific information
usually involves motor skills
is best remembered in the doing
Which statement is not true?
Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age.
Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep.
Ten-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.
Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
Absence seizures typically begin in adolescence and is often severely disabling.
During seizures, sensory messages are processed normally but responses are blocked.
Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor.
The aura in tonic-clonic seizures typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness.
Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children?
The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.
REM sleep is associated with ________.
decreased activity of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex
decreased oxygen use, especially in the cerebral cortex
temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for ocular muscles and diaphragm
decreased vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure
Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?
Which statement about coma is true?
Coma is neurologically identical to syncope.
Coma may be caused by widespread cerebral or brain stem trauma.
Coma is a form of deep sleep.
During coma, brain oxygen consumption resembles that of a waking state.
__________ forms a liquid cushion for CNS structures.
The pia mater
The dura mater
The blood-brain barrier
__________ is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain in which beta-amyloid peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles appear and that ultimately results in dementia (mental deterioration).
mad cow disease
During meningitis, which of the following is the most likely to be a direct source of pathogens that may spread to the brain?
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.
The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
arachnoid and dura
arachnoid and epidura
arachnoid and pia
dura and epidura
Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?
red blood cells
Which of the following is not a function of the CSF?
reduction of brain weight
initiation of some nerve impulses
protection from blows
nourishment of the brain
Which of the following is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?
Which protective covering of the brain provides passageways for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to drain into the superior sagittal sinus?
membranous part of the dura mater
periosteal part of the dura mater
In general, information flows from sensory receptors to the appropriate primary sensory cortex.
The term cerebral dominance designates the hemisphere that is dominant for language.
Which of the following is not a site where a tumor is likely to cause hydrocephalus?
Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.
lower motor neurons
upper motor neurons
spinal nerve roots
An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.
lateral geniculate body
visual association area
primary visual area
Mrs. Sagalov has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. What clinical symptoms is she likely to show?
She will show increasing cognitive deficits, including difficulties with memory and attention, and personality changes such as irritability, moodiness, and confusion.
She will show wild, jerky, and continuously "flapping" movements, and mental deterioration.
She will show a persistent tremor, forward-bent walking posture, shuffling gait, and stiff facial expression.
She will show difficulty in communicating, forming relationships with others, and responding appropriately to the environment.
She will show visual disturbances, problems controlling muscles, speech disturbances, and urinary incontinence.
A patient is admitted to the rehabilitation unit five days after having a stroke. The nurse assesses his muscle strength and determines that he has right-sided weakness. Based on this assessment data, what part of the brain was injured?
There was damage to localized areas of the premotor cortex in the right cerebral hemisphere.
There was damage to localized areas of the prefrontal cortex in the right cerebral hemisphere.
There was damage to localized areas of the primary motor cortex in the left cerebral hemisphere.
There was damage to localized areas of the primary motor cortex in the right cerebral hemisphere.
There was damage to localized areas of the premotor cortex in the left cerebral hemisphere.
Which of the following regions of the brain provides the precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for the smooth, coordinated movements and agility that are needed for our daily living?
Emotional state, rehearsal, association, and automatic memory are all factors that affect the transfer of information from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM).
Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.
Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other.
Spinocerebellar tracts ________.
terminate in the spinal cord
give rise to conscious experience of perception
are found in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord
carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.
the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord
the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be ________.
The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
myelinated nerve fibers only
soma that have both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
unmyelinated nerve fibers only
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.
spinal shock only
Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________.
Death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis usually results from respiratory infection secondary to compromised respiratory function. Why?
When the impulses to the ciliated cells are inhibited, the ciliary escalator no longer functions, causing respiratory infection.
The reflexes in the respiratory system for expelling particles will no longer function due to damage to the dorsal horn motor neurons, causing respiratory infection.
It is actually more common for the person to die from paralysis of the muscles controlling breathing than from respiratory infection.
When the lungs have difficulty fully expanding, secretions may develop, causing respiratory infection.
Which of the following is NOT a feature of the major spinal cord tracts (pathways)?
What part of the spinal cord represents the collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal?
The hypothalamus is the area where afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body are sorted out and then relayed to the appropriate area of the sensory cortex.
Which of the following is the LEAST likely to be structurally affected if spina bifida develops in a fetus?
roots of sacral spinal nerves
laminae of thoracic vertebrae