Statistics Ch. 8

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1

statistical hypothesis

a conjecture about a population parameter

2

null hypothesis

a statistical hypothesis that states that there is no difference between a parameter and a specific value

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alternative hypothesis

a statistical hypothesis that states the existence of a difference between a parameter and a specific value

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hypothesis testing

a decision making process for the population under study

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statistical test

uses the data obtained from a sample to make a decision about whether a null hypothesis should be rejected

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test value

the numerical value obtained from a statistical test

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type I error

occurs when you reject the null hypothesis when it is true

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type II error

occurs when you do not reject the null hypothesis when it is false

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level of significance

the maximum probability of committing a type I error

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probability of a type I error symbol

card image
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probability of a type II error symbol

card image
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critical value

separates the critical region from the noncritical region

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critical region

the range of values of the test value that indicates there is a significant different and the null hypothesis should be rejected

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noncritical region

the range of values of the test value that indicates that the difference was probably due to chance and that the null hypothesis should not be rejected

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one-tailed test

the null hypothesis should be rejected when the test value is in the critical region on one side of the mean

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two-tailed test

the null hypothesis should be rejected when the test value is in either of the 2 critical regions

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z-test

a statistical test for the mean of a population

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p-value

the probability of getting a sample statistic or a more extreme sample statistic in the direction of the alternative hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true

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t test

a statistical test for the mean of a population & is used when the population is normally or approximately normally distributed