Fundamentals of the Nervous System

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Book:Elaine N. Marieb Created for Bakersfield College A&P
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1

List The General Functions of The Nervous System:

-Sensory Input
-Integration
-Motor output

2

What does motor input activate?

-Muscles and Glands

3

What are the 2 structural classifications of the Nervous system?

-Central Nervous System
-Peripheral Nervous System

4

What does the CNS consist of?

-Brain
-Spinal cord

5

What does the PNS consist of?

- Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord

6

Sensory (afferent) division
-Nerve fibers carry info to the CNS

...

7

Motor (efferent) division
-Nerve fibers carry info away from CNS

...

8

What are the 2 subdivisions of the motor division?

-Somatic Nervous System(voluntary)
-Autonomic Nervous System(involuntary)

9

What does the Somatic Nervous System control?
(Hint: Voluntary; you control it)

-Skeletal Muscle

10

What does the Autonomic Nervous System Control?
(Hint: Involuntary; out of your control)

-Smooth Muscle
-Cardiac Muscle
-Glands

11

What are the 2 type of cells in the Nervous System?

-support cells(glial cells)
-Nuerons (Nerve Cells)

12

~~Support Cells~~

...

13

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

...

14

What type of Nueroglia does the CNS consist of?

-Astrocytes
-Mircroglia
-Ependymal Cells
-Oligodendrocytes

15

Describe Astrocytes:

-Star-shaped cells
-for blood-brain barrier between capillaries and nuerons

16

Describe Microglia:

-Spider-like phagocytic macrophages
-Dispose of debris and dead nuerons
-On autopsy, areas of brain damage may be found by looking for increase microglia

17

Describe Ependymal Cells:

-line cavities of the brain and spinal cord
-contain cilia that circulate cerebrospinal fluid

18

Describe Oligodendrocytes:

-forms myelin sheath in the CNS

19

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

...

20

What type or Nueroglia does the PNS consist of?

-Satellite Cells
-Schwann Cells

21

What is the function of Satellite Cells?

-Protects nueron cell body

22

What are the functions of Schwann cells?

-Forms myelin sheath around axons in the PNS

23

What are the functions of Myelin Sheath?

-insulates and protects the axon
-High lipid concentration

24

What is multiple sclerosis?

An autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord(CNS); damages and scars nuerons and myelinated axons.

25

Who is at high risk for multiple sclerosis?

-Females are 2x more at risk than males
-caucasians

26

~~Nuerons~~

...

27

What are the main differences between Nueroglia and Nuerons?

Nueroglia- support, insulate, cushion, and protects nuerons, cannot transmit impulses, can divide
Nuerons-Irritability(responds to stimuli) and Conductivity( transmits impulses to effectors)

28

What are the 2 major regions of nuerons?

-Cell Body
-Processes

29

What are the sub units of the Cell Body(nucleus and metabolic center of the cell)?

-Nissl bodies, nuerofibrils, nucleus, large nucleolus, mitochondria

30

What are the sub units of the Processes(fibers that extend from the cell body)?

-Dendrites
-Axons

31

What are the functions of dendrites?

-receives signals and conducts impulses toward the cell body

32

What are the functions of an axon?

-conducts impulses away from the cell body

33

What are the sub units of an axon?

-axon hillock sheath, myelin sheath, nodes of ranvier, axon terminals, synaptic vesicles w/ nuerotransmitters, synaptic cleft, and synapse.

34

What sub unit of the axon determines if threshold is reached?

-Axon Hillock

35

What are some examples of nuerotransmitters?

-dopamine, seratonin, GABA, ACh

36

What is white matter?

-dense collection of myelinated fibers.

37

What is gray matter?

-collections of unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies.

38

What are the 3 FUNCTIONAL classification of neurons?

-Sensory(afferent) neurons
-Motor (efferent) neurons
-Internuerons (association neurons)

39

Describe a Sensory Neuron:

-Bring impulses toward the CNS from receptors
-Unipolar w/ cell body in ganglia

40

Describe a Motor Neuron:

-Carry impulses away from the CNS to effector muscles and glands.
-Cell body in CNS.

41

What is a internueron?

-cell confined to the CNS; short extensions

42

What are the 2 STRUCTURAL classifications of Neurons?

-Multipolar neurons
-Bipolar neurons
-Unipolar neurons

43

What resting membrane potential?

-inside of cell has fewer positive ions than outside
-polarized

44

What is action potential?

-temporary reversal of membrane potential across membrane

45

Stimulus Received-->Deporazation-->Action Potential-->Repolarization-->Refractory Period

...

46

What is Ecitatory Postsynaptic Potential(EPSP)?

-increases membrane permeability to NA+ and depolarizes postsynaptic membrane
-increases likelihood to fire an AP

47

What is Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential(IPSP)?

-increases permeability to K+ and hyperpolarizes postsynaptic membrane
-decreases likelihood to fire an AP

48

How do anesthetics work?

-Act at the site of application to prevent pain sensations by blocking VG Na+ channels; therfore, no Action Potentials are generated in the sensory neurons and no Nuerotransmitters are released from sensory neurons to CNS neurons and if there are no ESPS in CNS than there is no perception of pain.

49

What is norepinephrine(NE)?

-a major neurotransmitter used between certain CNS nerve cells to communicate with one another.

50

What happens if too much NE is released?

-can cause over excitation & euphoria
-cocaine and amphetamines cause excess release of NE while also blocking breakdown via MAO->Cells exhuast themselves and are NE depleted->depression occurs until homestatic NE balance occurs->hospitalization can occur.

51

What happens if not enough nuerotransmitters like NE or Serotonin is released?

-Depression occurs and antidepressants called MAOI may need to be prescribed.