Chapter 8- RNA: Transcription and Processing

Helpfulness: +1
Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by scast8
230 views
Subjects:
genetics
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

exons

the part of the transcribed gene that leaves the nucleus

2

introns

the part of the transcribed gene that is removed and stays in the nucleus

3

splicesome

removes introns and joins exons together

4

alternative splicing

allows for more than one protein to come from the same gene- more than one RNA can be made from the same gene

5

ncRNA stands for

non coding RNAs

6

ncRNA

RNAs that do not encode for proteins

7

Differences between DNA and RNA

1. RNA is single stranded (can take on a 3D structure)

2. Has a ribose sugar (has a hydroxyl on the 2' carbon of the sugar)

3. Nucleotide base Uracil not Thymine

4. Can catalyze biological reactions

8

ribozyme

RNA that can catalyze biological reactions

9

What sugar is this?

ribose

10

What sugar is this?

deoxyribose

11

What are the purine nucleotides?

adenine and guanine

12

What are the pyrimidine nucleotides?

cytosine, thymine, and uracil

13

What are the two classes of RNA?

messenger RNA and functional RNA

14

Name the types of functional RNA

-transfer RNA (tRNA)
-ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
-small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)
-microRNAs (miRNAs)
-small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)
-long noncoding RNAs (lnc RNAs or ncRNAs)

15

transfer RNA

brings the proper amino acid to the mRNA during translation

16

ribosomal RNA

the major component of ribosomes

17

small nuclear RNAs

processes RNA transcripts in eukaryotic cells (ex. splicesosome)

18

small interfering RNAs and piwi RNAs

protect the integrity of plant and animal genomes, prevents the spread of transposons in plants and animals

19

Long noncoding RNAs

genomic sequence, may play a role in dissage compensation, but otherwise the function is unknown

20

constitutive transcription

RNAs which are continuously synthesized

21

transcription

the first step in obtaining protein from a gene

22

enzyme used in transcription

RNA polymerase

23

coding strand

the sequence found on the non-template strand

24

What are the three stages of transcription?

initiation, elongation, and termination

25

promoter

DNA sequence that promotes the operon for RNA polymerase to bind and synthesize

26

upstream

DNA before the first transcribed base (AUG)

27

downstream

DNA after the first transcribed base (AUG)

28

5' UTR

untranslated region between the promoter and the beginning of coding the gene

29

What triggers elongation?

recognition of the sigma factor and its release will trigger elongation

30

transcription bubble

DNA unwinds in front of the polymerase and rewinds after it

31

Where does the energy for the new bonds in elongation come from?

the splitting of the high-energy triphosphate and release of inorganic diphosphate

32

How is RNA synthesis terminated?

last 40 bp are GC rich in order to form a hairpin loop that ends with several U bases. The rho protein helps because it causes RNA polymerase to fall off