muscle, circulatory, + nervous system

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1

Muscle cells are... (4)

1. contractable:
2. extensible:
3. elastic:
4. excitable:

2

skeletal muscle characteristics (3)

1. striated
2. multiple nuclei
3. voluntary

3

skeletal muscle functions

contraction for voluntary movement

4

Cardiac muscle characteristics (4)

1. striated
2. involuntary
3. branched
4. 1 nuclei

5

Cardiac muscle functions

pumping of blood in circulatory system

6

Smooth muscle Characteristics (3)

1. nonstriated
2. involuntary
3. 1 nuclei

7

smooth muscle functions

propulsion of substances along internal pathways

8
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1. epimysium
2. endomysium
3. perimysium
4.

9

Muscles shorten... (2)

1. forcibly
2. passively return to their original length

10

Sliding filament theory

when a muscle contracts thick and thin filaments slide past each other

11

Origin

Most stable point of attachment, less mobile attachment

12

Insertion

more mobile attachment

13

1. agonist
2. antagonist
3. synergysts

1. prime mover
2. muscles who oppose those of the agonist
3. help to make movement a smooth movement

14

motor unit

motor neuron and all the muscle cells it innervates

15

muscle fiber

muscle cell

16

myofibrils

long, cylindrical

17

what is the origin and insertion of the pectoralis major

1. sternum
2. humerous

18

aponeurosis

when a tendon forms a thin flattened sheet

19

fascia

generalized term for a broad sheet of CT

20

Actions (4)

1. flexation 2. extension
3. adduction 4. abduction
6. rotation 7. elevation
8. supination 9. pronation

21
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1. m line 2. z disc
3. thin filament 4. thick filament
5. titan (elastin) 6. h zone
7. i band 8. a band

22

sarcolemma

plasma membrane of a muscle cell

23

muscle contraction steps (1-3)

1. a nerve impulse causes ACh release at a neuromuscular junction
2. ACh binds receptors on the motor end plate initiating a muscle impulse.
3. the muscle impulse spreads quickly along sarcolemma and into the muscle fiber along t-tubule membranes, causing calcium ions to be released into the sarcoplasm

24

muscle contraction steps (4-6)

4. calcium ions bind to troponin, causing troponin to move and expose active sites on actin
5. myosin heads attach to the actin and form crossbridges
6. myosin heads go through cyclic "attach,pivot, detach, return" events as the thin filaments are pulled past the thick filaments

25

muscle contraction steps (7-9)

7. ATP is required to detach the myosin heads and complete the sequence of cyclic events.
8. the sarcomere shortens and muslce contracts.
9. the cyclic events continue as long as calcium ions remain bonded to the troponin

26

Muscle contraction steps (10-11)

10. calcium ions are moved back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by ATP-driven ion pumps to reduce calcium concentration in the sarcoplasm, leading to relaxation.
11. termination of the muscle impulse results in the passive sliding of myofilaments back to their original state.

27

sarcoplasmic reticulum
1. does...
2. adapted for...

1. stores Ca2+
2. release and reuptake of Ca2+

28

1. pronation:
2. supination:

1. foot moving down and towards body. combo of inversion and plantar flexion
2. foot moving up and away from the body. combo of eversion and dorsiflexion

29

Blood pH is...

7.35-7.45

30

components of blood (4)

1. salts
2. Amino Acids
3. Glucose
4. Proteins

31

Plasma proteins (4)

1. Albumins
2. Globulins
3. fibrinogen
4. regulatory

32

Albumins
1. are...
2. ~__ %
3. function (2)

1. smallest and most common of plasma proteins
2. ~58%
3. A. regulate H2O movement between blood and interstitial fluid
B. transports some fatty acids and horemones

33

Globulins
1. are..
2. ~__ %
3. types of globulins (3)

1. second largest group of plasma proteins
2. ~37%
3. A. Alpha globulin
B. Beta globulin
C. Gama Globulin

34

functions of...
1. alpha globulins
2. Beta globulins
3. gamma globulins

1. transport lipids and some metal ions
2. transport iron ions and lipids in blood stream
3. antibodies that immobilize pathogens

35

Fibinogen
1. ~__ %
2. function

1. ~4%
2. helps with clotting

36

Regulatory proteins
1. ~__ %
2. consists of... (3)

1. ~ <1 %
2. A. enzymes
B. proenzymes
V. hormones

37
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1. plasma (55%)
2. white blood cells and platelets (<1%)
3. RBCs (45%)

38

Hematopoiesis = ____1___
2. is...

1. hemopoiesis
2. production of blood cells

39

Eurythropoiesis
1. is...
2. steps (3)

1. RBC production
2. A. ribosome synthesis
B. hemoglobin accumulation
C. ejection of nucleus

40

eurythropoietin

hormone that stimulates RBC production

41

lifespan of an RBC
1. men
2. women

1. 120 days
2. 110 days

42

why is carbon monoxide so poisonous?

it bonds permanently to hemoglobin so you cant get oxygen

43

1. arteries
2. veins
3. capilaries

1. carry blood away from heart.
2. carry blood back to heart.
3. where exchange takes place

44

hemoglobin

Hb.
a red pigmented protein that transports CO2 and O2

45

hematocrit
-men
-women

percentage of whole blood attributed to eurythrocytes
1. 47%
2. 43%

46

transferin

(beta globulin) binds iron and transports it around body

47

1. endogenous cholesterol
2. exogenous cholesterol

1. cholesterol we make
2. cholesterol we eat

48

jaundice

structures in hemoglobin is different, hemoglobin bind to O2 more tightly

49

5 subsystems of heart

1. conducting system (electrical
2. muscle itself
3. valves
4. coronary circulation
5. ANS of the heart

50

electrocardiogram
1. P 2. Q,R,S
3. T

1. atrial depolarization
2. ventricular depolarization
3. ventricular repolarization

51
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a. P b. PR
c. QRS d. QT
e. ST f. T

52
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Basophile
release histamine and heparin during inflammatory or allergic reactions

53
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Eosinophile
1. phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and allergens
2. release chemical mediators to destroy parasitic worms

54
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Neutrophil
1. phagocytize pathogens, especially bacteria
2. release enzymes that target pathogens

55
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Monocyte
1. can exit blood vessels and become macrophages
2. phagocytize pathogens, cellular debris, dead cells

56
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Lymphocyte
1. attack pathogens and abnormal infected cells
2. coordinate immune cell activity
3.produce antibodies.

57
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1. gas and nutrient exchange in peripheral tissues
2. systemmic veins
3. superior and inferior venae cavesas
4. right atrium
5. right atrue=oventricular valve
6. right ventrical
7. pulmonary semilunar valve
8. pulmonary trunk and arteries

58
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9. gas exchange in the lungs 10. pulmonary veins
11. left atrium 12. left AV valve
13. left ventricle 14. atric cemilunar valve
15. aorta 16. systemic arteries

59
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1. from placenta 2. umbilical vein
3. inferior vena cava 4. foramen ovale
5. right ventricle 6. pulmonary artery
7. lungs 8. pulmonarry veins
9. left atrium 10. left ventricle
11. aorta 12. descending aorta
13. umbilical arteries 14. to placenta

60

1. systolic pressure
2. diastolic pressure

1. the top number, measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats
2. the bottom number, measures the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats

61

Electrical impulse through the heart

1. SA node 2. arteries
3. AV node 4. bundle of his
5. L + R bundle branch 6. purkingee
7. ventricle myocardial cells

62

Hydrostatic pressure:
1. is
2. does

1. fluid pressure exerted by blood pushing against the inside wall of a blood vessel
2. forces both H2O + small solutes across the plasma membrane

63
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1. capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pc)
2. osmotic force due to plasma protein concentration ( p)
3. interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (Pif)
4. osmotic force due to interstitial fluid protein concentration ( if)
5. net filtration pressure =
(Pc-Pif)-( p- if)

64
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1. Pc=35 2. p=28 3. Pif=0 4. if=3
5. net filtration pressure = (35-0)-(28-3)=10mmHG (favoring filtration)
6. Pc=15 7. p=28 8. Pif=0 9. if=3
10. net filtration pressure = (15-0)-(28-3)=-10mmHG
favoring absorption

65

ectopic fosi

myocarial cells start making their own rythm that they are not supposed to have

66

1. arteries
2. veins

1. holds shape better
2. distend more

67

why do arteries hold shape more than veins

because there is more muscle tissue in arteries

68

percent of blood in....
1. heart
2. pulmonary circulation
3. ateries
4. veins, venules
5. arterioles, caplilaries

1. 15%
2. 12%
3. 16-18%
4. 50%
5. 5-7%

69
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1. Tunica interna 2. tunica media
3. tunica externa

70

1. Tunica interna
2. tunica media
3. tunica externa

1. (tunica intema) internal layer of arter or veing
2. middle layer of artery or vein
3. (tunica adventitia) outermost layer of blood vessels

71

tunica interna (intema)
inclues these layers for both arteries and veins(2)
includes this additional in arteries layer

1. endothelium (simple squamous)
2. sub endothelial layer
3. internal elastic lamina

72

tunia media
includes this layer for only arteries

external elastic lamina

73
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1. vein 2. valve open
3. contraced skeletal muscle 4. valve closed
5. blood flows only toward heart

74
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1. large veins
2. tunica media 3. tunica interna 4. tunica externa
5. medium sized veins(1-10 mmi.d.)6. tunica externa
7. calves in veins (>2mm i.d.) 8. tunica media
9. tunica interna
10. venule 11. tunica externa 12. endothelium
13. capillary bed

75
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1. Large (elastic) arteries 2. tunica externa
3. tunica media (elastic) 4. tunica interna
5. Medium sized (muscular) arteries (.3-10mm i.d.)
6. tunica externa 7. external elastic membrane
8. tunica media (muscular) 9. internal elastic memb
10. arteriol 11. smooth muscle cells
12. basement membrane
13. endothelium

76

edima

accumulation of interstitial flud

77

ischemia

decreased blood supply to a part of the body

78

why should you not lock your knees?

because flud will pool to feet and wont be able to get back to the heart and could cause fainting

79

what happens to the vessels in the heart with age?

they get smaller and thinner so you start making your own bypasses

80

who is more likely to die from a major coronary, younger or older?

younger because they do not have as many bypasses as someone older does

81
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1. dendrites 2. axon terminal 3. schwann's cells
4. node of Ranvier 5. axon 6. myelin sheath
7. nucleus 8. soma 9. axon hillock

82

Basic cell types in the NS (2)

1. neurons
2. glial cells (neuroglia)

83

1. neurons
2. Glial cells (neuroglia)

1. conduct nerve impulses from pne part of the body to another
2. both CNS and PNS, do not transmit nerve impulses but assist neurons with their function

84

Neurons
1. produce...
2. are (2)
3. exhibit

1. action potentials (spikes)
2. a. reproducable
b. non decramenta (don't change over distance)
3. all or nothing potentials

85

Functional classes of neurons (3)

1. interneuron
2. afferent neurons
3. efferent neurons

86

functional classes of neurons
1. Interneuron
a. also called...
b. lie entirely in..
c. are ____ structures
d. recieve...

a. association neurons
b. within this CNS
c. multipolar
d. nerve impulses from other neurons and send out integrative function of NS

87

functional classes of neurons
2. Afferent neurons
a. also called...
b. do what?

a. sensory neurons
b. transmit impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS

88

functional classes of neurons
3. efferent neurons
a. also called...
b. do what?

a. motor neurons
b. transmit impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands

89
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1. CNS
2. PNS
3. interneurons
4. afferent neurons
5. efferent neurons

90

Cerebrospinal fluid

clear, colorless liquid that circulates in ventricles and subarachnoid space.

91

functions of cerebrospinal fluid (3)

1. boyancey
2. protection
3. environmental stability

92

Glial cells(5)

1. ependymal cells
2. oligodendrocytes
3. astrocytes
4. mocroglia
5. schwann's cells
6. sattelite cells

93

1. ependymal cells
a. found in?
b. funcions (2)

a. CNS
b. 1. lines ventricles of + central canal of spinal cord
2. assists in production and circulation of CSF

94

2. oligodendrocytes
a. found in
b. functions (2)

a. CNS
b. 1. myelinates and insulates CNS axons
2. allows faster nerve impulse conduction throu the axon

95

3. astrocytes
a. found in
b. function (5)

a. CNS
b. 1. helps for blood brain barrier
2. regulares tissue fluid composition
3. structural support and organization to CNS
4. replaces damages neurons
5. assists with neuronal development

96

4. microglial cell
a. found in
b. functions (3)

a. CNA
b. 1. defends against pathogens
2. removes debris
3. phagocytizes wastes

97

5. schwann's cell
a. found in
b. functions (2)

a. PNS
b. 1. myelinates and insulates PNS axons
b. allows for faster nerve impulse conduction through axon

98

6. satellite cell
a. found in
b. function

a. PNS
b. protects and regulates nutrients from cell bodies in ganglia

99

central nervous system includes...

brain and spinal cord

100

peripheral nervous system includes... (6)

1. afferent NS
2. efferent NS
3. somatic NS
4. autonomic NS
5. sympathetic division of ANS
6. parasympathetic division of ANS

101

somatic sensory

recieves sensory info from skin, joints, fascia, skeletal muscles, and specials senses

102

somatic motor

"voluntary" nervous system, innervates skeletal muscles

103

visceral sencory

recieves sensory info from viscera

104

autonomic motor

"involuntary" NS innervates cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands

105

sympathetic division

fight or flight. prepares body for emergencies

106

parasympathetic division

rest and digest. conserves and replenishes energy stores, maintains homeostasis

107

axon collateral

thought to grow as part of learning

108

what happens when myelinations sheets degenerate

they never come back and leaves scarring that messes with the function of neuron