human anatomy & physiology

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1

Matter

is anything that occupies space and has mass

2

State of mater

solid, liquid and gaseous state

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energy

is the capacity to do work

4

kinetic energy

is energy in action

5

potencial energy

Is stored energy

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form of energy

chemical energy, electrical energy, mechanical energy, radiant energy or electromagnetic energy

7

Make up about 96% of our body

carbon, oxygen,hydrogen,and nitrogen

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atom

means indivisible, are clusters of even smaller particles called protons, neutrons and electrons.

9

oxygen function

a major componenof both organic(carbon conaining) and inorganic (non-carbon contain) moleculas. t it is need for the production of cellular energy.

10

carbon function

a primary component of all organic molecules, which include carbohydrates, lipids(fat) proteins and nucleid acid.

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nitrogen function

a component of proteins and nucleic acid.

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atomic number

is equal to tne number of protons

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the mass number

is the sum of the protons and neutrons

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isotopes

elements have two o more structural variation

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ridioisotopes

the disintegration of a radioactive nucleus may be compared to tiny explosion

16

molecule

combination of two or more atoms bind, they form molecules of a compound

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Mixture

Are substance composed of two or more component phisically intermix

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Solution

homogeneous, will not settler

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Colloids

Are heterogeneous mixtures. Often appear translucent or milky and although the solute particle are larger that those in true solutions, they still o not settle out.example jell-O

20

Suspension

Are heterogeneous mixture with large, often visible solutes that tent to settle out. Example mixture of salt and water and blood

21

Chemical bonds

It is a energy relationship between the electrons of the reacting atoms.

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Metabolism

All the chemical reaction has occur in a living organs

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Catalys

Chemical that help speed up chemical reaction with out itself being used up

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Oxidation reduction

Something oxide is remove

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Dehydrogeneration

Remove hydrogeneration

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Inorganic

Any chemical that does not contain carb

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Organic

Any chemical that contain carb

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Homogeneous solution

Everything disolve.ex salt

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Heterogeneous

Is never a true solution . Ex. Flour

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Proteins

Is not a truly dissolve because is too heavy

31

Ph

Ph is the scale on the number of hydrogen ion in solution

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Salt

Is an ionic compound containing cations and anions

33

Hydrolysis

Opposite of dehydration synthesis

34

Types of chemical bonds

Ionic bond, covalent bond, hydrogen bond

35

Ionic bound

a bond which electrons are complely lost or gained by the atoms involved

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Nonpolar molecules

Electrically balanced

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Polar molecules

Containing atoms with different electrons -attracting ability

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Covalent bond

Two different atoms share the same electrons

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Biochemistry

Is the study of the chemical composition and reaction of living matter

40

Water

Is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material. It make up 60-80% of volume of most living cells

41

Acids

Have a sour taste, can react with many metals.

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Acid and bases

Like salt they are electrolyte

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Buffers

A buffer is a solution containing either a weak acid and its salt or a weak base and its salt, which is resistant to changes in pH.

44

Carbohydrates

A group of molecules that includes sugar and starches

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Monosaccharides

Or simple sugar , ex. Glucose , fructose, galactose.

46

Disaccharides

Double sugar, it's formed when two monosaccharides are join by dehydration synthesis

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Polysaccharides

Simple sugar linked together by dehydration synthesis

48

Lipid

Contain carbon, hydrogen,and oxygen.( fat in the body)

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Triglycerides

Neutral fats, it composed of two types of building block, fatty acid and glycerol. Fat deposits

50

Fatty acids

Are linear chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with an organic acid group at the end.

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cation

electrically charged particle due to loss of an electron

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hydrogen bond

a bond which electrons are shared equally

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electrical energy

legs moving the pedal of a bicycle

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chemical energy

when the bondsof ATP are broken, is released to do cellular work

55

mechanical energy

represented by the flow of charged particles along a conductor, or flow of ions acrossa membrance

56

cholesterol fuction

the structural basic for manufactory of all body steroids. a component of cell membrane

57

trans fat`

increasing the risk of heart disease even more that the solid animal fat

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phospolipids

are modified triglycerides

59

steroid

are fat soluble and contain little oxygen

60

amino acid

the building block of proteins

61

peptide bond

two united amino acid

62

the nucleic acid

composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus, are the largest molecules in the body. has two major class of molecules Deoxiribonucleic acid(DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)

63

DNA

is the genetic material

64

RNA

carried out the genetic instructions for protein synthesis

65

DNA bases

Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

66

RNA bases

Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil