Exam 1 - part 2

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by cspell
912 views
book cover
Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 17, 25, 26
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Place the structures below in the proper sequence that the glomerular filtrate would pass through them.
1. Loop of nephron (Loop of Henle)
2. Distal convoluted tubule
3. Proximal convoluted tubule
4. Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

4, 3, 1, 2, 5

2

The kidneys usually receive

ONE-FOURTH (25%) OF THE CARDIAC OUTPUT

3

Which of the following structures would normally contain red blood cells ?
Bowman's capsule
Loop of nephron
Proximal convoluted tubule
Glomerulus
All of the above

GLOMERULUS

4

The cells of the distal convoluted tubule which monitor changes in urine volume and osmolarity are called the

MACULA DENSA CELLS

5

Which gland sits atop each kidney ?

ADRENAL

6

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because

IT STABILIZES THE POSITION OF THE KIDNEYS BY HOLDING THEM IN THEIR NORMAL POSITION

7

The function and structural unit of the kidneys is

THE NEPHRON

8

The filtration membrane includes all but
Renal fascia
Glomerular endothelium
Basement membrane
Podocytes

RENAL FASCIA

9

The uptake of substances from the kidney tubules back to the blood is known as

TUBULAR REABSORPTION

10

Water leaves the nephron by

OSMOSIS

11

When ADH levels in the plasma are low, the collecting tubules are

ONLY SLIGHTLY PERMEABLE TO WATER

12

Which of the following is not true ?
The kidneys can maintain a fairly constant filtration pressure if there are systemic pressure fluctuations.
Arterioles lead to and from the glomerulus.
Blood in the kidneys goes through 2 capillary beds.
All of the above are true.

ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE TRUE

13

The term that is used to indicate how well kidneys are able to remove a substance from the blood is

GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

14

The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determines the amount of glomerular filtrate formed per minute. This rate is influenced, either directly or indirectly, by
Cardiac output (CO)
Blood pressure in the glomerulus (BP)
Bowman's capsule pressure (BCP)
Osmotic pressure of plasma proteins (BOP)
All of the above

ALL OF THE ABOVE

15

The main overall function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus is to

MAINTAIN A STABLE GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR)

16

A substance which causes an increase in urine output would be classified as a/an

DIURETIC

17

If a drug given which inhibits sodium reabsorption by blocking the action of aldosterone, what effect will it likely have on blood potassium levels ?

INCREASE BLOOD POTASSIUM LEVELS

18

If a substance has a high renal clearance (higher that inulin), it probably is

FILTERED AND SECRETED

19

If glucose is not reabsorbed from the proximal convoluted tubule, what happens to it ?

IT PASSES INTO THE URINE

20

When uric acid or calcium salts precipitate out of urine, they may form stones. The medical term for these are

RENAL CALCULI

21

ADH secretion is inhibited by

ETHANOL

22

A buildup of waste products in the blood that should be excreted by the kidneys is called

UREMIA

23

Glomerular filtration is selective in terms of a particle's

SIZE

24

The blood vessels that surround all parts of the renal tubule are called the

PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES (VASA RECTA)

25

What would be the immediate effect of decreased cardiac output (less blood being pumped) on glomerular filtration rate (assuming no other compensation) ?

DECREASE

26

What would be the immediate effect of constriction of the afferent arteriole on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ?

NO EFFECT

27

Which of the following regions of the nephron is most likely to be found in the renal medulla ?

LOOP OF HENLE

28

If the Tmax (transport maximum) for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/mL and the concentration of that amino acid in the filtrate is 230 mg/mL, the amino acid

WILL APPEAR IN THE URINE

29

The renal clearance of glucose is normally zero. This is because

NORMALLY ALL THE GLUCOSE THAT IS FILTERED IS REABSORBED

30

Urine passes through the

PELVIS OF THE KIDNEY TO URETERS TO BLADDER TO URETHRA

31

The function of angiotensin II is to

CONSTRICT ARTERIOLES AND INCREASE BLOOD PRESSURE

32

A dilute urine is formed when the

COLLECTING TUBULE IS IMPERMEABLE TO WATER

33

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is produced ______ and it converts _______.

LUNGS; ANGIOTENSIN I TO ANGIOTENSIN II

34

The vessel that carries blood from the abdominal aorta to the kidney is the

RENAL ARTERY

35

All blood cells begin as the same type of cell called a

HEMOCYTOBLAST

36

The average life span of an erythrocyte is normally about

FOUR MONTHS (120 DAYS)

37

During the first trimester of fetal life, erythropoiesis occurs in the

YOLK SAC

38

The heme (ring) portion of the hemoglobin of broken down blood cells is converted to a straight chain compound called

BILIRUBIN

39

A condition that is common in premature infants and in Rh incompatibility situations in which the erythrocytes are very weak and leads to a build-up of bilirubin in the blood is

ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

40

A hemocrit of 45% indicates

NORMAL BLOOD

41

Healthy adults normally have about how many red blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood ?

5,000,000

42

Healthy adults normally have about how many white blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood ?

10,000

43

Normally, the most numerous of the leukocytes are the

NEUTROPHILS

44

The type of leukocyte which becomes a mast cell when it enters the tissues are the (according to some sources, these leukocytes may just be very similar to mast cells)

BASOPHILS

45

A high white blood cell count is called

LEUKOCYTOSIS

46

What do white blood cells have that red blood cells do not have ?

A NUCLEUS

47

Acute bacterial infection and tissue destruction is usually characterized by an increase in the number of

NEUTROPHILS

48

The leukocyte which is believed to ingest and destroy antigen-antibody complexes is the

EOSINOPHIL

49

The leukocyte that releases histamine is the

BASOPHIL

50

The engulfment of foreign organisms by certain types of blood cells is known as

PHAGOCYTOSIS

51

The first step of coagulation can begin either from factors within the blood or outside the blood. The pathway that is triggered when blood comes in contact with connective tissue or any time thromboplastin is released is called

EXTRINSIC

52

Regardless of the pathway used in step one of blood coagulation, the product is the same. This product is

PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR

53

Most of the clotting factors require which element to do their job ?

CALCIUM