Unit 1 practice quiz

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 25, 26
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1

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the

LOOP OF HENLE

2

While the kidneys process about 180L of blood-derived fluids daily, the amount that actually leaves the body is

1% OR 1.8 L

3

Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid ?

ALDOSTERONE

4

Edema may result from

LYMPHATIC BLOCKAGE

5

Which statement is correct ?
Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.
Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine.
The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of blood

REABSORPTION OF WATER IS HORMONALLY CONTROLLED.

6

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it

IS DRAINED BY AN EFFERENT ARTERIOLE

7

Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most _________ is found in the intracellular fluid.

POTASSIUM

8

Chemical buffering systems of the body may include

phosphate

9

The filtration membrane includes all but

RENAL FASCIA

10

Tubular reabsorption

BY ACTIVE MECHANISMS USUALLY INVOLVES MOVEMENT AGAINST AN ELECTRICAL AND/OR CHEMICAL GRADIENT

11

Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-based balance......
The kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid.
Excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate.
Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ions.
The kidneys are the most important mechanism for eliminating all bicarbonate ions.

KIDNEY TUBULE CELLS ARE ABLE TO SYNTHESIZE BICARBONATE ION.

12

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it

INHIBITS THE RELEASE OF ADH

13

Water occupies 2 main compartments within the body, the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular fluid compartment. Which of the following statements is true concerning the volume of intracellular fluid ?

APPROXIMATELY TWO-THIRDS OF THE WATER IS IN THE INTRACELLULAR FLUID COMPARTMENT

14

The respiratory mechanism of acid-base balance

REQUIRES AN ENZYME WITHIN RED BLOOD CELLS THAT CAUSES THE FORMATION OF CARBONIC ACID

15

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is

THE NEPHRON

16

Parathyroid hormone

IS THE MOST IMPORTANT CONTROL OF CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS

17

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus

THE GLOMERULAR HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

18

The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the _______ buffer system

BICARBONATE

19

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters ?
They are tri-layered
They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum
They are made up of several layers of endothelium
They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently

THEY ARE TRI-LAYERED (MUCOSA, MUSCULARIS, AND ADVENTITIA)