Chapter 25 & 26 - The Urinary System and Fluids, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balances

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 25, 26
answers to a 32 question test I took on 9/14/2013.
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1

The hormone that is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid ?

ALDOSTERONE

2

Respiratory acidosis can occur when:

A PERSON'S BREATHING IS SHALLOW DUE TO OBSTRUCTION

3

Describe the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids ?

K+ MAINLY IN THE CELLS, NA+ IN THE BODY FLUIDS

4

A falling blood Ph and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates:

RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS

5

The movement of fluids between cellular compartments:

IS REGULATED BY OSMOTIC AND HYDROSTATIC FORCES

6

Chemical buffering systems of the body may include:

PHOSPHATE

7

The hormone important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys ?

ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE

8

The total body water is divided into intracellular and extracellular fluids, plasma is considered to be which ?

EXTRACELLULAR

9

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis ?

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

10

One of the major physiological factors that trigger thirst is what ?

RISE IN PLASMA OSMOLARITY

11

What is the most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls ?

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF CAPILLARY BLOOD

12

What does not depend on the presence of electrolytes ?

AMOUNT OF BODY FAT

13

Urine passes through what ?

PELVIS OF THE KIDNEY TO URETER TO BLADDER TO URETHRA

14

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin:

BY A DECREASE IN THE BLOOD PRESSURE

15

The descending limb of the loop of Henle:

CONTAINS FLUID THAT BECOMES MORE CONCENTRATED AS IT MOVES DOWN INTO THE MEDULLA

16

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because:

IT STABILIZES THE POSITION OF THE KIDNEYS BY HOLDING THEM IN THEIR NORMAL POSITION

17

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is:

THE NEPHRON

18

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for:

REGULATING THE RATE OF FILTRATE FORMATION AND CONTROLLING SYSTEMIC BLOOD PRESSURE

19

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is:

OSMOSIS

20

Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules:

IS HORMONALLY CONTROLLED IN DISTAL TUBULE SEGMENTS

21

The mascula densa cells respond to:

CHANGE IN SOLUTE CONTENT OF THE FILTRATE

22

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of:

PLASMA PROTEIN

23

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it:

INHIBITS THE RELEASE OF ADH

24

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal ?

NET FILTRATION WOULD DECREASE

25

Tubular reabsorption:

BY ACTIVE MECHANISMS USUALLY INVOLVES MOVEMENT AGAINST AN ELECTRICAL AND/OR CHEMICAL GRADIENT

26

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid:

WILL APPEAR IN THE URINE

27

If one says that the renal clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean ?

NORMALLY ALL THE GLUCOSE IS REABSORBED

28

Which statement is correct ?

REABSORPTION OF WATER IS HORMONALLY CONTROLLED

29

A patient is infused with inulin at a rate to maintain a blood plasma concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. Their urine volume produced is 1.0 mL per minute, and the urine concentration of inulin is 12 mg/mL. What is their renal clearance for inulin ? What does this tell you ?

THEIR RENAL CLEARANCE FOR INULIN IS 120 ML/MIN (12*1.0/0.1)
THIS TELLS ME THEY HAVE A NORMAL RATE OF GFR AND FILTRATION IS NORMAL.

30

The atomic weight of calcium is 40. How many mEq/L would be in a solution that contained 200 mg/L ?

10 mEq/L WOULD BE IN A SOLUTION THAT CONTAINED 200 MG/L

31

What does the following symbol stand for HCO3 ?

IT STANDS FOR HYDROGEN CARBONATE

32

What does the following symbol stand for HPO42- ?

IT STANDS FOR HYDROGEN PHOSPHATE