Review of the Literature

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1

What is matter?

anything that has mass and occupies space

2

What are the 3 stages of mass?

solid, liquid and gas

3

What is energy?

capacity to work or put matter into motion

4

Kinetic energy is what kind of energy?

it is the action

5

Potential energy is what kind of energy?

it is stored (inactive) energy

6

What is chemical energy?

stored in bonds of chemical substances

7

What is electrical energy?

results from movement of charged particles

8

What is mechanical energy?

directly involved in moving matter

9

What is radiany or electromagnetic energy?

travels in waves (e.g. visible light, ultraviolet light, and x-ray)

10

What are elements?

* matter is made up of elements.
* elements cannot be broken into simpler substances
* each has unique properties

11

How to write an Atomic symbol?

one-two letter chemical shorthand for each element (example: Fe)

12

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen are make up what percent of the human body?

96.1%

13

How many elements make up 3.9% of the human body mass?

9 elements

14

How many elements make up <0.01% of the human body mass and part of enzymes?

11 elements

15

Atoms are composed of subatomic particles, what are they?

protons, neutrons, and electrons

16

True or False neutrons have a positive charge and a mass of one atomic mass.

False, neutrons have no charge

17

True or False protons have a positive charge and a mass of 1 amu and are responsible for the identity of the element.

True

18

True or False electrons have a positive charge and a negligible mass

False, electrons have a negative

19
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Is this a Planetary model or an Orbital model?

Planetary model

20
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Is this a Planetary model or an Orbital model?

Orbital model

21
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Different elements contain different numbers of subatomic particles what does Hydrogen have?

1 proton, 0 neutrons, and 1 electron

22
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Different elements contain different numbers of subatomic particles what does Lithium have?

3 protons, 4 neutrons, and 3 electrons

23
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Different elements contain different numbers of subatomic particles what does Helium have?

2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons

24

Which of the following statements are FALSE?
1. The Atomic number is located in the upper left
corner.
2. The symbol always one capitalized letter and
one lower case letter.
3. The weight is located at the bottom of the
square.
4. The name of the element is written under the
symbol.
5. All the above
6. None of the above

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2. The symbol always one capitalized letter and
one lower case letter.

25

What are Radioisotopes?

heavy isotopes decompose to more stable forms.
large atoms
can be detected with scanners

26

Most _____ chemically combined with other atoms to form ___________and compounds.

atoms
molecules

27

What am I?
I have 2 or more atoms bonded together. I am the smallest particle of a compound with specific characteristics of the compound.

I am a molecule

28

What am I?
I have 2 or more different kinds of atoms bonded together. If the attraction is electrostatic it is an ionic bond if it is formed by shared electron pairs it is covalent.

I am a compound

29

Most matter exists as ________.

mixtures

30

What are three types of mixtures?

solutions
colloids
suspensions

31

What is the Mixture:
* Homogeneous mixtures that are uniform
throughout.
* Gases, liquids, or solids dissolved in water.
* Usually transparent.

Solutions

32

What is the Mixture:
* Heterogeneous mixtures
* Example is blood
* Large visible settles out

Suspensions

33

What is the Mixture:
* Heterogeneous mixture
* Cytosol
* Large particle do not settle out
* some undergo sol-gel transformations

Colliods (AKA emulsions)

34
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Is this picture a example of:
a. Colloid mixture?
a. Suspension mixture
b. Solution mixture
d. none of the above

b. Solution mixture

35
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Is this picture a example of:
a. Colloid mixture?
a. Suspension mixture
b. Solution mixture
d. none of the above

a. Colloid mixture?

36
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Is this picture a example of:
a. Colloid mixture?
a. Suspension mixture
b. Solution mixture
d. none of the above

b. Solution mixture

37

Is this Mixtures or Compounds:
* no chemical bonding between compounds
* can be separated by physical means
* Heterogeneous or homogeneous

Mixtures

38

Is this Mixtures or Compounds:
* chemical bonding between compounds
* can be separated only by breaking bonds
* all are homogeneous

Compounds

39

What are chemical bonds?

energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms.

40

What element is being described here:
* stable and unreactive
* valence shell fully occupied or contains 8
electrons
* Noble gasses

Helium

41

What are the Chemically reactive elements?
(there are of them)

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42

What are the Chemically Inert Elements?

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43

Ionic, Covalent, Hydrogen are what types of bonds?

Chemical

44

Man made rubber is an example of what kind of chemical bond?

Covalent

45

Table salt is an example of what kind of chemical bond?

Ionic

46

Changeable bonds is what chemical bond?

Hydrogen

47
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The above picture is an diagram of table salt. What compound is this?

Ionic Compound

48

Formed by sharing of 2 or more valence shell electrons, double triple. Allows each atom to fill its valence shell at least part of the time. What type of bond is this?

Covalent Bond

49

TRUE or FALSE
Polar Covalent Bonds are electrons shared equally. Produces electrically balanced. polar. An example is dry ice.

False, this is a Nonpolar Covalent Bond

50

TRUE or FALSE
Polar Covalent Bonds are unequal sharing of electrons produces polar (AKA dipole) molcules such as H2O (very important in water).

True

51
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Is the above picture is which of the following:
a. water
b. oxygen
c. potassium

a. water

52
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Out of the 3 categories which one likes to share and does not fight?

Nonpolar covalent bond

53
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Out of the 3 categories which one is big and mean?

Ionic bond

54
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Out of the 3 categories which one is slightly negative?

Polar covalent bond

55

Not a true bond. Common between dipoles such as water. Also act as intramolecular bonds, holding a large molecule in a 3D shape. What kind of bond is this?

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Hydrogen Bond

56
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Why is the water strider able to walk on the water without the surface of the water breaking?

because of the strength of the hydrogen bonds

57

TRUE OR FALSE
Synthesis Reaction is an Anabolic. Smaller particles are bonded together to form larger, more complex molecules.

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TRUE

58

TRUE OR FALSE
Decomposition reactions are the same as synthesis reactions. Bonds are broken in smaller molecules, resulting in bigger and more complex molecules. Involve breaking of bonds and are Anabolic.

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FALSE, Decomposition reactions are the reverse of synthesis reactions. Bonds are broken in larger molecules, resulting in smaller and less complex molecules. Involve breaking of bonds and are Catabolic.

59

TRUE OR FALSE
Exchange reaction also called displacement reactions are both synthesis and decomposition. Bonds are both made and broken.

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TRUE

60

Electron donors lose electrons and are oxidized and electron acceptors receive electrons and become reduced is which kind of reaction?

Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reaction

61

All chemical reactions are either exergonic or endergonic. Which one are examples of a cold pack? It also absorbs energy.

endergonic reactions

62

All chemical reactions are either exergonic or endergonic. Which one are examples of a hot pack, and foot/hand warmers? It also gives off energy.

Exergonic reactions

63

What is the meaning of Biochemistry?

the study of chemical composition and reaction of living matter.

64

TRUE or FALSE
All chemicals are either organic or inorganic.

TRUE

65

Stomach acid is an example of organic or inorganic compound?

inorganic compound
(water, salts and many acids and bases)

66

Orange Juice is an example of organic or inorganic compound?

organic compound

67

What is high heat capacity?

absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before changing temperature

68

What is high heat vaporization?

changing from a liquid to a gas requires large amounts of heat

69

What is polar solvent properties?

dissolves anything

70
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What is the number for pH neutral?

7

71

What are buffers?

it is a hard compound. abrupt and large swings in the pH of the body fluids. carbonic acid-bicarbonate system in the blood stream.

72

Molecules unique to living systems contain carbon and hence are organic compounds what are they?

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids

73
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In the above picture choose which Organic Compound best describes the picture.
a. Lipids
b. Nucleic Acids
c. Carbohydrates
d. Proteins

c. Carbohydrates

74

Which Lipid modified triglycerides with 2 fatty acid groups?

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Phospholipids

75

TRUE or FALSE
Steroids and Elcosanoids are other types of Lipids?

TRUE

76

What are the representative lipids found in the body?

neutral fats
phospholipids
steroids

77

What are amino acids?

building blocks of protein, containing an amino group and a carboxyl group

78

What are proteins?

macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds.

79

Amino acid sequence what structural level of proteins is this?

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Primary

80

Alpha helices or beta pleated sheets what structural level of proteins is this?

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81

Superimposed folding of secondary structures, what structural level of proteins is this?

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Tertiary

82

Polypeptide chins linked together in a specific manner, what structural level of proteins is this?

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Quaternary

83

What is the characteristics of an Enzyme?

most are globular proteins that acts as biological catalysts

84

What is an example of enzymes?

meat tenderizers

85

What are nucleic acids?

composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus

86

What are the 5 nitrogen bases?

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adenine (A)
guanine (G)
cytosine (C)
thymine (T)
uracil (U)

87

Deoxyribonucleic Acid stands for what?

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DNA, double-stranded helical molecule.

88

Ribonucleic Acids stands for what?

RNA, single stranded molecule. found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell.

89

Adenosine Triphosphate stands for what?

ATP