Review of the Literature

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1

What is Anatomy

study of structure of body parts and their relationships to one another

2

What are the subdivisions of Anatomy:
a. microscopic
b. gross or macroscopic
c. developmental
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d. all of the above

3

What is Cytology?

study of cells

4

What is Histology?

study of tissues

5

What is Embryology?

study of developmental changes of the body before birth

6

What is Physiology?

the study of the function of the body

7

What is the life function for movement?

There are many types of movement within the body. On the cellular level, molecules move from one place to another. Blood moves from one part of the body to another. The diaphragm moves with every breath. The ability of muscle fibers to shorten and thus to produce movement is called contractility.

8

What is the life function for responsiveness?

Responsiveness or irritability is concerned with detecting changes in the internal or external environments and reacting to that change. It is the act of sensing a stimulus and responding to it.

9

What is the life function for digestion?

Digestion is the process of breaking down complex ingested foods into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood and utilized by the body.

10

What is the life function for metabolism?

Metabolism is a broad term that includes all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. One phase of metabolism is catabolism in which complex substances are broken down into simpler building blocks and energy is released.

11

What is the life function for dispose of wastes?

Excretion is the process that removes the waste products of digestion and metabolism from the body. It gets rid of by-products that the body is unable to use, many of which are toxic and incompatible with life.

12

What is the life function for reproduction?

For most people, reproduction refers to the formation of a new person, the birth of a baby. In this way, life is transmitted from one generation to the next through reproduction of the organism. In a broader sense, reproduction also refers to the formation of new cells for the replacement and repair of old cells as well as for growth. This is cellular reproduction. Both are essential to the survival of the human race.

13

What is the life function for growth?

Growth refers to an increase in size either through an increase in the number of cells or through an increase in the size of each individual cell. In order for growth to occur, anabolic processes must occur at a faster rate than catabolic processes.

14
card image

Number 1 would be which of the following:
a. Digestive System
b. Integumentary System
c. Urinary System
d. Respiratory System
e. Cardiovascular System

a. Digestive System - takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces)

15
card image

Number 2 would be which of the following:
a. Digestive System
b. Integumentary System
c. Urinary System
d. Respiratory System
e. Cardiovascular System

d. Respiratory System - takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide

16
card image

Number 3 would be which of the following:
a. Digestive System
b. Integumentary System
c. Urinary System
d. Respiratory System
e. Cardiovascular System

e. Cardiovascular System - via the blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbon dioxide to disposal organs

17
card image

Number 4 would be which of the following:
a. Digestive System
b. Integumentary System
c. Urinary System
d. Respiratory System
e. Cardiovascular System

c. Urinary System - eliminates nitrogenous wastes and excess ions

18
card image

Number 5 would be which of the following:
a. Digestive System
b. Integumentary System
c. Urinary System
d. Respiratory System
e. Cardiovascular System

b. Integumentary System - protects the body as a whole from external environment

19
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. nervous system
b. Cardiovascular system
c. Skeletal system
d. Integumentary system
e. Muscular system
f. Endocrine system

d. Integumentary system - forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissue from injury. synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.

20
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. nervous system
b. Cardiovascular system
c. Skeletal system
d. Integumentary system
e. Muscular system
f. Endocrine system

c. Skeletal system - protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.

21
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. nervous system
b. Cardiovascular system
c. Skeletal system
d. Integumentary system
e. Muscular system
f. Endocrine system

e. Muscular system - allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture, and produces heat.

22
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. nervous system
b. Cardiovascular system
c. Skeletal system
d. Integumentary system
e. Muscular system
f. Endocrine system

a. nervous system - as the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.

23
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. nervous system
b. Cardiovascular system
c. Skeletal system
d. Integumentary system
e. Muscular system
f. Endocrine system

f. Endocrine system - glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.

24
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. nervous system
b. Cardiovascular system
c. Skeletal system
d. Integumentary system
e. Muscular system
f. Endocrine system

b. Cardiovascular system - blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.

25
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. Lymphatic system/Immunity
b. Respiratory system
c. Male Reproductive System
d. Urinary system
e. Female Reproductive System
f. Digestive system

a. Lymphatic system/Immunity - picks up fluid leaks from blood vessels and returns it to blood. disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. houses whit blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. the immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body

26
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. Lymphatic system/Immunity
b. Respiratory system
c. Male Reproductive System
d. Urinary system
e. Female Reproductive System
f. Digestive system

b. Respiratory system - keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and carbon dioxide. the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.

27
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. Lymphatic system/Immunity
b. Respiratory system
c. Male Reproductive System
d. Urinary system
e. Female Reproductive System
f. Digestive system

f. Digestive system - breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.

28
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. Lymphatic system/Immunity
b. Respiratory system
c. Male Reproductive System
d. Urinary system
e. Female Reproductive System
f. Digestive system

d. Urinary system - eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.

29
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. Lymphatic system/Immunity
b. Respiratory system
c. Male Reproductive System
d. Urinary system
e. Female Reproductive System
f. Digestive system

c. Male Reproductive System - The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands, and penis. These organs work together to produce sperm, the male gamete, and the other components of semen. These organs also work together to deliver semen out of the body and into the vagina where it can fertilize egg cells to produce offspring....

30
card image

Which organ system is this and what is it's function:
a. Lymphatic system/Immunity
b. Respiratory system
c. Male Reproductive System
d. Urinary system
e. Female Reproductive System
f. Digestive system

e. Female Reproductive System - The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands and breasts. These organs are involved in the production and transportation of gametes and the production of sex hormones. The female reproductive system also facilitates the fertilization of ova by sperm and supports the development of offspring during pregnancy and infancy....

31

What is the most abundant chemical in the body?

Water

32

What is the normal body temperature in a human?

Because the proper number varies from person to person, the number was rounded up to 37 degrees, which gave the value of 98.6. If not rounded, it gives the value of 97.9

33

What is homeostasis?

(1) The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions

(2) The ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a condition of equilibrium or stability within its internal environment when dealing with external changes

34
card image

Is this what the Homeostatic Control Mechanism looks like?
a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes - interactions among the elements of a homeostatic control system maintain stable internal conditions.

35
card image

Which answer is correct for the picture?
a. Positive Feedback
b. Negative Feedback
c. none of the above

a. Positive Feedback - this is not very common. enhancement labor contractions by oxytocin. platelet plug formation and blood clotting.

36
card image

Which answer is correct for the picture?
a. Positive Feedback
b. Negative Feedback
c. none of the above

b. Negative Feedback - this is very common. regulation of body temperature. regulation of blood volume by ADH (an endocrine system mechanism)

37

What does the Anatomical Position look like?

card image

1. body erect
2. feet slightly apart
3. palms facing forward
4. thumbs pointing away from body
(right and left refer to body being viewed, not those of observer)

38
card image

What body area is number 1?
a. Abdominal
b. Cervical
c. Cephalic
d. Thoracic

c. Cephalic

39
card image

What body area is number 2?
a. Abdominal
b. Cervical
c. Cephalic
d. Thoracic

b. Cervical

40
card image

What body area is number 3?
a. Abdominal
b. Cervical
c. Cephalic
d. Thoracic

d. Thoracic

41
card image

What body area is number 4?
a. Abdomen
b. Pelvic
c. Thorax
d. Pubic

a. Abdominal

42
card image

What body area is number 5?
a. Abdomen
b. Pelvic
c. Thorax
d. Pubic

b. Pelvic

43
card image

What body area is number 6?
a. Abdomen
b. Pelvic
c. Thorax
d. Pubic

d. Pubic

44
card image

What body area is number 7?
a. Abdominal
b. Cervical
c. Cephalic
d. Thoracic

d. Thoracic

45
card image

What body area is number 8?
a. Abdomen
b. Pelvic
c. Thorax
d. Pubic

a. Abdomen

46
card image

What body area is number 1?
a. Digital
b. Manus
c. Upper Limb
d. Palmar

c. Upper Limb

47
card image

What body area is number 2?
a. Digital
b. Manus
c. Upper Limb
d. Palmar

b. Manus

48
card image

What body area is number 3?
a. Digital
b. Manus
c. Upper Limb
d. Palmar

d. Palmar

49
card image

What body area is number 4?
a. Digital
b. Manus
c. Upper Limb
d. Palmar

a. Digital

50
card image

What body area is number 5?
a. Metatarsal
b. Lower Limb
c. Digital
d. Petal

b. Lower Limb

51
card image

What body area is number 6?
a. Metatarsal
b. Lower Limb
c. Digital
d. Petal

d. Petal

52
card image

What body area is number 7?
a. Metatarsal
b. Lower Limb
c. Digital
d. Petal

a. Metatarsal

53
card image

What body area is number 8?
a. Metatarsal
b. Lower Limb
c. Digital
d. Petal

c. Digital

54
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Superior (cranial)

55
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Inferior (caudal)

56
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Ventral (anterior)

57
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Dorsal (posterior)

58
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Medial

59
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Lateral

60
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Intermediate

61
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Proximal

62
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Distal

63
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Superficial (external)

64
card image

What is the correct Directional Term for the picture?

Deep (internal)

65

What are the two major divisions of the body?

Axial and Appendicular

66
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

c. Upper Limb

67
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

l. Manus

68
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

k. Metacarpal

69
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

j. Lower Limb

70
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

d. Popliteal

71
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

h. Pedal

72
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

f. Calcaneal

73
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

b. Plantar

74
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

e. Cephalic

75
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

a. Cervical

76
card image

Match the number with the correct name.
a. Cervical b. Plantar
c. Upper Limb d. Popliteal
e. Cephalic f. Calcaneal
h. Pedal i. Back
j. Lower Limb k. Metacarpal
l. Manus

i. Back

77
card image

Which plane or section is this?
a. Transverse plane
b. Frontal plane
c. Transverse section
d. Median plane
e. Frontal section
f. Median section

b. Frontal plane

78
card image

Which plane or section is this?
a. Transverse plane
b. Frontal plane
c. Transverse section
d. Median plane
e. Frontal section
f. Median section

d. Median plane

79
card image

Which plane or section is this?
a. Transverse plane
b. Frontal plane
c. Transverse section
d. Median plane
e. Frontal section
f. Median section

a. Transverse plane

80
card image

Which plane or section is this?
a. Transverse plane
b. Frontal plane
c. Transverse section
d. Median plane
e. Frontal section
f. Median section

f. Median section

81
card image

Which plane or section is this?
a. Transverse plane
b. Frontal plane
c. Transverse section
d. Median plane
e. Frontal section
f. Median section

c. Transverse section

82
card image

Which plane or section is this?
a. Transverse plane
b. Frontal plane
c. Transverse section
d. Median plane
e. Frontal section
f. Median section

e. Frontal section

83
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Dorsal body cavity

84
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Cranial Cavity

85
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Vertebral cavity

86
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Thoracic cavity

87
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Diaphragm

88
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Abdominal cavity

89
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Pelvic cavity

90
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Superior cavity

91
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Pleural cavity

92
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Pericardial cavity

93
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Abdomino-pelvic Cavity

94
card image

Name the dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions:
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity
Dorsal body cavity Pericardial cavity
Thoracic cavity Diaphragm
Ventral body cavity Pleural cavity
Vertebral cavity Superior cavity
Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity

Ventral body cavity

95

What organs does the Abdominopelvic cavity have in it?

stomach, intestines, spleen and liver

96

The Pelvic cavity contains what organs?

urinary bladder, reproductive organs and rectum

97

The lungs are housed in which cavity?

Thoracic Cavity

98

What cavity encloses the heart?

Pericardial

99

What is a serous membrane or serosa?

thin, double layered membrane, layers are separated by slit-like cavity filled with serous fluid.

100
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Which letter is Visceral pericardium?

D.

101
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Which letter is Heart?

A.

102
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Which letter is Pericardial space with serous fluid?

C.

103
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Which letter is Parietal pericardium?

B.

104

Which division does the medical personnel use primarily?

Abdominopelvic Quadrants

105
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Which one is Left upper quadrant (LUQ)?

C

106
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Which one is Left lower quadrant (LLQ)?

D

107
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Which one is Right lower quadrant (RLQ)?

B

108
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Which one is Right upper quadrant (RUQ)?

A

109
card image

Match the letter goes with Umbilical region?

E

110
card image

Match the letter goes with Left inguinal region?

I

111
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Match the letter goes with Right Hypochondriac Region?

A

112
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Match the letter goes with Hypogastric Region?

H

113
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Match the letter goes with Right iliac Region?

G

114
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Match the letter goes with Left lumbar region?

F

115
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Match the letter goes with Epigastric region?

B

116
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Match the letter goes with Right lumbar region?

D

117
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Match the letter goes with Left Hypochondriac region?

C

118

True or False the following other cavities are exposed to the environment?
oral and digestive
nasal
orbital middle ear

True

119

True or False the following cavity is exposed to the environment?
Synovial

False