foundations study guide test 1, chapter 22

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study guide chapter 22
updated 6 years ago by pbesaw
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1

autonomy

refers to freedom of external control for politics and government, in health care similar

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respect for autonomy refers to the commitment to include _______________ in decisions about all aspects of care as a way of acknowledging their independence.

patients

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beneficence

taking positive actions to help others. the principle of beneficence is fundamental to the practice of nursing and medicine. The agreement to act with b. implies that the best interests of the patient remains more important then self. Implies that nurses practice service to others, even daily

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nonmaleficence

Maleficence= harm or hurt, so nonmaleficence is the avoidance of harm or hurt.

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nonmaleficence in health care, ethical practice involves the will to do good, but equal commitment to do no

harm

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justice

fairness. usually when discussing healthcare resources, or lack of availability to

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fidelity

refers to ability to keep promises by following through on your actions and interventions if you assess a patient for pain and offer a plan to manage the pain, encourages you to monitor the patient's response

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advocacy

refers to the support of a particular cause. as a nurse you advocate for the health, safety, and rights of patients, including their right to privacy. you understand patient's point of view.

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responsibility

willingness to respect one's professional obligations and follow through on promises. responsible for actions and for actions of those you delegate tasks to. maintain competent to practice so you are reliable.

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accountability

refers to ability to answer for one's action. you learn to ensure that your professional actions are explainable to your patients and your employer.

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confidentiality

widely respected in health care. federal legislation known as the Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPAA).

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value

a personal belief about the worth of a given ideas, attitude, custom, or object that sets standards that influence behavior. Important to know your own values as you respect others values.

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Philosophies of ethical

be able to recognize the philosophy

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Philosophies of ethical discussions:
deontology

defines actions as right or wrong based on their "right-making characteristics) such as fidelity to promises, truthfulness, and justice.

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Philosophies of ethical discussions:
utilitarianism

proposes that the value of something is determined by its usefulness. the philosophy is also known as consequentialism. relies on the application of a certain principle.

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Difference between deontology and utilitarianism

the focus on outcomes. Utilitarianism measures the effect that an act will have; deontology looks to the presence of principle regardless of outcome.

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Philosophies of ethical discussions:
feminist ethics

critiques conventional ethics such as deontology and utilitarianism. looks to the nature of relationships to guide participants in making difficult decisions, especially when powers are unequal.

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Philosophies of ethical discussions:
feminist ethics

propose that the natural human urge to be influenced by relationships is a positive value.

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Philosophies of ethical discussions:
ethics of care

ethics of care and feminist ethics are closely related. both promote a philosophy that focuses on understanding relationships, especially personal narratives.

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Philosophies of ethical discussions:
ethics of care

may even address issues beyond individual relationships such as ethical concerns about the structures within which individual caring occurs such as health care facilities

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Philosophies of ethical discussions:
consensus in bioethics

bringing different points of view to agreement and harmony, or consensus, requires skill and patience. Building consensus is essentially an act of discovery, collective wisdom guides the group. encourages respect for unusual points of view while working for agreement among participants.

22

Key steps in the resolution of an ethical dilemma

Ask, gather info, clarify values, verbalize problem, identify courses of action, negotiate a plan, and evaluate the plan.

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Key steps in the resolution of an ethical dilemma (know in order) STEP 1:

Ask the question, is this an ethical dilemma? if a review of scientific data does not resolve the question, if it is perplexing, and if the answer will have relevance for human concern, an ethical dilemma probably exists.

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Key steps in the resolution of an ethical dilemma (know in order) STEP 2:

gather info relevant to the case. Patient, family, institutional, and social perspectives are important sources of relevant information.

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Key steps in the resolution of an ethical dilemma (know in order) STEP 3:

clarify values. Distinguish among fact, opinion, and values.

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Key steps in the resolution of an ethical dilemma (know in order) STEP 4:

verbalize the problem. a clear, simple statement of the dilemma is not always easy, but it helps to ensure effectiveness in the final plan and facilitate discussion.

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Key steps in the resolution of an ethical dilemma (know in order) STEP 5:

Identify possible courses of action.

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Key steps in the resolution of an ethical dilemma (know in order) STEP 6:

negotiate a plan. negotiation requires sa confidence in one's own point of view and a deep respect for the opinions of others.

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Key steps in the resolution of an ethical dilemma (know in order) STEP 7:

evaluate the plan over time.