Respiratory

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1

Name the 6 functions of the respiratory system

1) ventilation
2) regulation of blood pH
3) production of chemical mediators (ACE)
4) vocalization
5) olfaction
6) protection

2

What are the 3 types of respiration?

1) external (gas exchange between lungs and blood)
2) internal (gas exchange between blood and tissues)
3) cellular (chemical processes in the cell)

3

What parts form the upper respiratory tract?

nose, pharynx, external nares, nasal cavity, pharyngeal tonsil, nasopharynx, palatine tonsil, oropharynx, lingual tonsil, epiglottis

4

What parts form the lower respiratory tract?

larynx (thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage), trachea, primary bronchus, secondary bronchus, tertiary bronchus, bronchioles, alveoli

5

Where are chemoreceptors of the respiratory system located?

In the nose & inner nasal cavity

6

List the pathway of oxygen through the respiratory system

1) External nares 2) nasal cavity 3) oropharynx 4) laryngopharynx 5) larynx 6) trachea 7) primary bronchus 8) secondary bronchus 9) tertiary bronchus 10) bronchioles 11) terminal bronchiole 12) respiratory bronchiole 13) alveoli 14) erythrocyte

7

What type of cells are in the inner lining of the trachea?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (with goblet cells)

8

What divides the nasal cavity sagitally?

the nasal septum

9

What bones form the roof of the nasal cavity?

Ethmoid & sphenoid

10

What prevents liquid from going into the larynx?

Epiglottis

11

What type of cells make up the three regions of the pharynx?

1) nasopharynx- pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells.

2) oropharynx- stratified squamous epithelium

3) laryngopharynx- stratified squamous epithelium

12

True or false: the openings of the auditory tube (eustachian tube) are in the nasopharynx?

True!

13

True or false: the oropharynx is shared with the digestive system

True!

14

What are the three types of UNPAIRED cartilages in the larynx?

thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis (attached to thyroid)

15

What type of cartilage is the epiglottis made of?

Elastic cartilage

16

What are the three types of PAIRED cartilage in the larynx?

Arytenoids (attached to cricoid), corniculate (attached to arytenoids), cuneiform (contained in mucous membrane)

17

True or false: the false vocal cords are involved in sound production

False (the true vocal cords are involved in sound production)

18

What is opening of the vocal cords called?

The glottis

19

How many c-shaped hyaline cartilage rings are in the trachea?

15-20

20

The most inferior tracheal cartilage forms a ridge which separates the openings into the main bronchi. This is called the:

carina

21

The two primary bronchi meet to form the:

trachea

22

What does a tertiary bronchus divide in to?

Bronchioles

23

What structure in the lungs is the site of oxygen exchange with the blood stream?

alveoli

24

What are the three types of cells in respiratory membrane?

1) Type I pneumocytes (thin squamous epithelial)
2) Type II pneumocytes (round to cube-shaped secretory cells)
3) Dust cells (phagocytic- engulfs debris & bacteria)

25

What cells in the lungs are not mature in pre-term babies?

Type II pneumocytes- they are not mature enough to produce surfactant in pre-term babies

26

What are the parts of the lungs?

Base, apex, hilus, lobes

27

True or false: each lung has 3 lobes.

False- the right lung has 3 lobes, the left lung has 2 lobes

28

Name the fissures in the right lung

oblique fissure, horizontal fissure

29

Name the fissures in the left lung

oblique fissure (there is only one fissure since there are only two lobes in the left lung)

30

True false: the cardiac notch is located on the right lung

False: the cardiac notch is on the LEFT lung (this is thought to be why the left lung only has 2 lobes)

31

Name the muscles involved in INSPIRATION

Scalenes, pectoralis minor, external intercostals, diaphragm

32

Name the muscles involved in EXPIRATION

Internal intercostals, abdominal muscles

33

Which muscle in the PRIMARY muscle of inspiration?

The diaphragm

34

What is the region between the two pleural cavities?

The mediastinum

35

True or false: the mediastinum contains the contents of the thoracic except for the lungs

true

36

Which pleura is adherent to the lungs: visceral or parietal?

Visceral pleura