Digestive system part 2

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1

Which digestive organ contains millions of deep gastric pits?

The stomach

2

Each gastric pit is connected to gastric glands. Name the types of cells in the gastric glands.

1) parietal cells (secrete HCL & intrinsic factor).

2) Chief cells/zymogen cells (secrete pepsinogen).

3) Enteroendocrine cells (secrete gastrin)

3

How often is the stomach surface epithelium renewed?

Every 3 to 6 days

4

Name the three segments of the small intestine.

Duodenum, jejunum and ileum

5

True or false: the duodenum is connected to the pyloris of stomach.

True: it receives chyme from the stomach and digestive secretions from the liver and pancreas.

6

Which section of the small intestine contains Peyer's Patches?

the ileum (NOT ilium!)

7

In which section of the small intestine does most of the body's nutrient absorption occur?

the jejunum (middle section)

8

Name the six main parts of the large intestine.

Cecum, Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum.

9

As the large intestine transitions from the ascending colon to the descending colon, it makes a turn. What is that turn called?

The right colic flexure (or hepatic flexure)

10

Inside each villi of the small intestine there is a structure called a lacteal. What body system is the lacteal part of?

Lymphatic system (it is a lymphatic capillary that transports the fat/lipids from our small intestine to the body)

11

Where in the body do we absorb the majority of the water that we consume?

In the small intestine

12

Where would you find teniae coli, haustra and epiploic appendages?

The large intestine

13

True or false: the large intestine contains numerous villi.

False, there are no villi in the large intestine

14

What is the term for the last portion of the rectum?

The anus

15

There are two circular muscles in the anorectal canal. What are they called?

The internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle; involuntary)

The external anal sphincter (skeletal muscle; voluntary)

16

What organ is divided into a right lobe, a left lobe, a caudate lobe and a quadrate lobe?

The liver!

17

What are liver cells called?

Hepatocytes

18

Which structure delivers nutrient rich blood to the liver for processing?

The hepatic portal vein (the blood in the hepatic portal vein comes directly from the intestines)

19

Name the structure within a hepatic lobule that
is an open passageway between adjacent plates and
allows blood to flow from the periperhy into the central vein.

Sinusoid

20

Which three structures make up a hepatic triad?

a branch of:
1) hepatic portal vein
2) hepatic artery proper
3) bile duct

21

What substance does the liver secrete into the gall bladder?

Bile

22

Name the functions of the liver (there are four).

1) vitamin storage
2) mineral storage
3) detoxification of wastes & toxins
4) drug inactivation (since drugs taken orally first go through the liver, they are partially metabolized before reaching the target organ- this is the "first pass effect")

23

True or false: the liver contains a large blood reservoir.

True. This makes it difficult to heal.

24

True or false: the gall bladder produces bile

false, it only stores and modifies it

25

The process of bile salts breaking down lipid (fat) droplets is called...

emulsification

26

Name the duct that runs from the gall bladder to the common hepatic duct.

The cystic duct

27

True or false: the pancreas is both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland

True- it secrets enzymes into ducts and also secretes hormones into the blood stream

28

Pancreatic enzymes are secreted into small ducts which drain into a larger duct. Name the larger duct.

Pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsing)

29

True or false: bile and pancreatic juices are released into the duodenum through the same opening

True. The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join up before entering the duodenum. They release their secretions through the duodenal papilla.