Microbiology Final Study Guide

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created 7 years ago by nerdgirl101
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This is my final exam for Microbiology study guide.
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1

Pathogen

any organism capable of causing disease in its host

2

Jenner

first inoculation

3

Semmelweiss

linked handwashing to disease

4

Hook

named cells

5

Koch

anthrax

6

Ehrlich

father of chemotherapy

7

Pasteur

pasterization

8

Pasteur

rabies incoluation

9

Lister

used carbon acid in surgery

10

What are the four organic compounds

Alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, organic acid

11

enzymes

protein catalyst that controls the rate of chemical reactions in cells

12

denaturization

disruption of hydrogen bonds an other weak forces that maintain the structure of a globular protein

13

wet mount

technique in which a drop of fluid containing microorganisms is place on a slide

14

smear

thin layer of liquid specimen spread out on a microscopic slide

15

stain

molecule that can bind a structure and give it color

16

Why is a gram stain important?

Determines type of antibiotic may be effective due to cell wall construction

17

coccus

spherical

18

bacillus

rod-shaped

19

spirillum

wavy or spiral

20

staphylo

clusters

21

strepto

chains

22

diplo

pairs

23

tetra

four cells in a cube

24

sarchina

eight cells in a cube

25

Gram positive

lot of peptidoglycan and is sensitive to antibiotics

26

Gram negative

thin layer of peptidoglycan and less sensitive to antibiotics

27

endospore

resistant, dormant structure that can survive adverse conditions

28

endotoxin

toxin incorporated in gram-negative bacteria cell walls and released when bacteria dies

29

L forms

irregularly shaped naturally occurring bacteria with defective cell walls

30

denaturization of enzymes

loses normal shape; cannot form enzyme-substrate complex

31

Lag phase

adapt to new environments and getting ready to divide

32

log phase

period of greatest cell division: exhibits most typical size and shape

33

stationary phase

population remains the same: some cells form while the same amount dies

34

decline phase

more and more cells die

35

Physical growth

pH, temperature, oxygen concentration, moisture, hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure, and radiation

36

Nutritional

carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phospherus, trace elements, and vitamins

37

streak plate

bacteria are lightly spread over the same surface of agar plates, results in isolated colonies

38

defined synthetic medium

contains known specific kinds and amount of chemical substances

39

complex medium

reasonably familiar materials but varies slightly in chemical composition from batch to batch

40

natural media

bacteria and other things growing together in oceans, lakes, and soil & living and dead organisms

41

selective media

encourages growth of some organisms but suppresses growth of other organisms

42

differential medium

observable changes (color, pH)

43

mutagen

agent that increases rate of mutations

44

transformation

change in an organisms characteristics because of transfer of genetic information

45

transduction

transferring genetic material by DNA being carried by bacteria-phages

46

conjugation

genetic material change but the donor and recipient must have contact & transfers much larger quantities of DNA

47

nucleic acid

DNA

48

capsid

protein subunit that surround nucleic acid

49

enveloped viruses

bilayer membrane outside their capsid

50

naked virus

no bilayer membrane outside of capsid

51

spikes

projections extending from viral envelope

52

viral specificity

specific kinds of cell a virus can infect whether a virus can or cannot attach to a cell

53

prion

exceedingly small infectious particle consisting of protein without any nucleic acid

54

parasite

an organism that lives at the expense of another organism

55

host

thing that a parasite attaches to

56

definitive host

harbor parasite while it reproduces sexually

57

reservoir hosts

infected organism that make parasites available for transmission to other hosts

58

helmiths

worms

59

scolex

head end of tapeworm

60

progliottid

body components mainly of reproductive organs of both sexes

61

hyphae

a long, threadlike structure of cells in fungi

62

Platyhelminthes

flatworms that live in or on hosts

63

nematodes

roundworms that live in the intestine or circulatory system of hosts

64

What percent of alcohol is most effective

70%

65

what all affect the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents

time, temperature, pH, & concentration

66

Agents kill by what means

chemical and physical

67

antibiotic

chemical substance produced by microorganisms which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of bacteria

68

superinfection

invasion by replacement microflora

69

zone of inhibition

clear area that appears on agar in the disk diffusion method

70

pathogen

parasite capable of causing disease in a host

71

contamination

presence of microorganisms on inanimate objects or surfaces of skin and mucous membranes

72

infection

multiplication of a parasitic organism, usually microscopic, within or upon the host's body

73

virulence

degree of intensity of the disease produced by a pathogen

74

sign

disease characteristic that can be observed by examining the patient

75

symptom

disease characteristic that can be observed or felt only by the patient, pain or nausea

76

sequelae

aftereffect of a disease

77

endemic

disease that is constantly present in a specific population

78

epidemic

disease that has a higher than normal incidence in a population over a relatively short period of time

79

pandemic

epidemic that has become world wide

80

virulence factors

characteristics that improve the chance of successful host invasion and infection

81

CDC

Center of Disease Control

82

nosocomial infections

infection acquired in a hospital or other medical facility

83

top nosocomial infections

Staphlococcus aureus, E. coli, streptococcus

84

sites of nosocomial infections

urinary tract, surgical wounds

85

adaptive (specific) immunity

mount defense against particular infectious agents by responses to that agent

86

innate (nonspecific) immunity

immunity exists in an organism because genetically determined characteristics

87

B cells

lymphocytes that are processed and mature

88

T cells

cells in thymus that undergo differentiation into thymus-derived cells