chp. 27 water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance

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1

chemicals that function to minimize changes in the pH of body fluids are called

a. buffers

2

if the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood increases, bicarbonate ions act as buffer by

a. removing excess hydrogen ions from the plasma

3

which of the following is NOT a buffer system of the body?

d. NaCl buffer system

4

a person working in the hot sun loses the greatest amount of water from the

d. skin

5

pH

c. is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration

6

which of the following substances releases hydrogen ions into a solution?

a. acids

7

sensible perspiration

c. is secreted by the sweat glands

8

loss of a large volume of sweat will

d. increase the osmolality of body fluids

9

in which of the following situations does one see large volumes of dilute urine produced?

a. ADH levels decrease

10

angiotensin II increases blood volume by stimulating

a. thirst

11

under normal conditions, most water loss from the body is through the

b. kidneys

12

which of the following is an example of water conservation by the body?

d. decreased urine volume

13

calcitonin

d. reduces extracellular calcium ion levels

14

increased osmolality of the ECF

a. increases thirst

15

the sensation of thirst results from

c. stimulation of osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus

16

what is the main role of magnesium ions in the body?

d. cofactors for intracellular enzymes

17

the main regulator of serum phosphate levels is a transport process in the

b. kidneys

18

a major complication of thyroid surgery is the accidental damaging or removal of the parathyroid glands. this damage or removal of the parathyroid glands can result in

c. decreased plasma calcium

19

adequate calcium absorption from the GI tract depends on

c. adequate amounts of vitamin D

20

stimulus for the secretion of parathyroid hormone is a decrease in serum

b. calcium levels

21

parathyroid hormone effects the

c. intestine, kidneys, and bone

22

calcium balance is influenced by

c. parathyroid hormone and vitamin D levels

23

caclium's roles in the body include

e. all of these choices are correct

24

an increase in parathyroid hormone levels results in

a. increased rate of bone reabsorption

25

which of the following is correctly matched?

a. alkalosis - hypokalemia

26

most of the calcium in the body is in the

a. bones

27

in hypocalcemia

d. neromuscular excitability increases

28

the most common cause of hyperkalemia is

d. cellular injury or death

29

which of the following will the body begin to do in order to compensate for hyperkalemia?

e. increase aldosterone secretion

30

hyperkalemia is defined as

c. increase in plasma potassium level

31

the composition of extracellular fluid has little affect on intracellular fluid amounts

FALSE

32

which of the following would be expected to cause hypoatermia?

d. decreased aldosterone production

33

oversection of aldosterone causes

c. hypernatermia

34

increased ADH secretion could be stimulated by which of the following situations?

b. increased blood osmolality

35

atrial natriuretic hormone increases

a. urine volume

36

what characteristic of the plasma membrane is responsible for maintaining the difference between intracellular and extracellular fluid?

c. being selectively permeable

37

body fluid pH will rise dramatically when

b. large amounts of bicarbonate are ingested

38

as a result of hyperventilation

b. the plasma PCO2 level decreases

39

an increase in blood CO2 levels is followed by a ____ in H+ ions and a _____ in blood pH

d. increase, decrease

40

which of the following terms does not belong with the other three?

b. pH increases

41

mr. I.M.A. wreck's plasma pH is 7.2. which of the following indicates that the body is attempting to compensate and return the body pH to normal?

a. an increase in respiration rate

42

in renal compensation of acidosis,

c. H+ secretion increase; bicarbonate reabsorption increases

43

which of the following can play a role in buffering the pH of urine?

e. ammonia, bicarbonate ions and phosphate ions

44

the normal pH for blood plasma is

c. 7.35-7.45

45

once alkalosis has occured, which of the following would you expect to happen?

c. retention of hydrogen ions by the kidney

46

hyposecretion of aldosterone would lead to

b. decreased secretion of hydrogen ions

47

when normal buffer mechanisms are overwhelmed by excessive numbers of hydrogen ions, which of the following will result?

a. acidosis

48

a failing blood pH and a rising concentration of carbon dioxide due to emphysema, indicate

c. respiratory acidosis

49

ingesting large amounts of sodium bicarbonate can lead to

b. metabolic alkalosis

50

respiratory alkolsis can occur as a result of

d. hyperventilation

51

prolonged vomiting of stomach contents will result in

b. metabolic alkalosis

52

which of the following regulatory mechanisms would be stimulated as a result of increased osmolality that results from a Na+ level of 152 mEq/L?

b. an increased release of ADH

53

the increase in extracellular osmolality would cause

a. water to move out of the cells

54

loss of water through diffusion and evaporation from the skin is called _____ and is important in _____ control

b. insensible perspiration; heat loss

55

elevated blood pressure under resting conditions results in increased urinary output because

e. baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to decrease ADH secretion

56

youve been working outside in the hot sun and are dripping wet with sweat. your fluid intake has been minimal as you have been too busy to stop and get a drink. you would expect

d. ADH levels to increase

57

chloride ions

d. are regulated with Na+

58

decreased extracellular potassium levels cause

b. hyperpolarization of cell membranes

59

which of the following statements concerning potassium ions is false?

c. when aldsoterone levels are high, potassium secretion is low

60

a decrease in plasma osmolality would increase

d. urine production

61

the stimulus for secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone is increased

c. blood pressure in atria of heart

62

which of the following is NOT a principle sensor for thirst regulation?

d. mouth mucosa

63

the primary regulator of plasma sodium concentration is

c. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

64

which of the following is most likely to happen to a group of students who relax by drinking a pitcher of their favorite beverage?

a. an increase in urine volume

65

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

c. increases water reabsorption in the kidneys

66

which of the following fluid compartments contains the largest volume of water?

c. intracellular compartment

67

which of the following fluid compartments contains the smallest volume of water?

a. plasma

68

synovial fluid is a part of which of the following fluid compartments?

d. extracellular

69

the major route of excretion for sodium ions (under normal conditions) is the

b. kidney

70

when aldosterone is absent, sodium reabsorption in the nephron is

b. greatly decreased

71

as the rate of sweat production increase, the amount of sodium lost in the urine

b. decreases

72

receptors sensitive to changes in the osmolality of extracellular fluid are the

c. osmoreceptors

73

renin is released by

b. kidneys

74

which of the following events occurs last?

c. sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubules

75

where is the highest concentration of bicarbonate ion found?

c. interstitial fluid

76

water moves back and forth across the plasma membrane by the process of

a. osmosis

77

the cation that plays a major role in determining the osmotic pressure of the plasma is

a. sodium

78

one difference between the plasma and interstitial fluid is that the plasma has significantly more ____ than interstitial fluid

a. protein

79

serum electrolyte concentrations are most often expressed as

d. mEq/L

80

the predominant extracellular anion is

d. chloride

81

the predominant intracellular cation is

a. potassium

82

the predominant extracellular cation is

b. sodium

83

the distribution of sodium and potassium ions between intracellular and extracellular compartment is

a. potassium mainly intracellular; sodium mainly extracellular

84

which of the following individuals would have the largest percentage of their bodyweight as water

a. a 7-month old female

85

which of the following people would most severely affected by prolonged vomiting?

a. 3-year-old male

86

extracellular fluid has a

c. higher sodium content than intracellular fluid

87

azetazolamide (diamox) is a diuretic. it functions by blocking the activity of carbonic anhydrase inside kidney tubule cells. this shows the formation of carbonic acid. by slowing the formation of hydrogen ions in the cells of the tubule, sodium reabsorption is also slowed. this results in the diuretic effect. select from the following list the possible side-effects of azetazolamide

e. 1, 2, 3, 4

88

the K+ level of 2.8 mEq/L indicates hypokalemia. low plasma K+ levels will cause

b. muscle weakness

89

bob trotts has an enteropathogenic e. coli infection resulting in sever diarrhea for 2 days. this could produce which of the following

a. 1, 3, 5, 6, 7