FINAL-psych

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created 7 years ago by marymargaret
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psychology
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1

obesity

greater than 20% increase over healthy weight, based on BMI

2

BMI

ratio of weight to height associated with body fat

3

rough and tumble play

friendly chasing and play fighting

4

dominance hierarchy

stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises

5

concrete operational stage

7-11 yrs. marks a major turning point in cognitive development. thought is far more logical, flexible, and organized than it was earlier

6

reversibility

capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point

7

seriation

ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight

8

transitive inference

concrete operational child can also seriate mentally

9

cognitive maps

mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces

10

adolescence

transition between childhood and adulthood

11

puberty

flood of biological events leading to an adult sized body and sexual maturity

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growth spurt

first outward sign of puberty is the rapid gain in height and weight

13

primary sexual characteristics

reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus, vagina; penis, testes, scrotum)

14

secondary sexual characteristics

visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity (hair, breasts)

15

menarche

first menstruation

16

spermache

first ejactulation

17

secular trend

generational change

18

body image

conception of and attitude toward physical appearance

19

anorexia nervosa

eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear or getting fat

20

bulimia nervosa

eating disorder in which people engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging

21

formal operations stage

11, develop capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking

22

hypothetico-deductive reasoning

start with hypothesis, from which they deduce, then they systemically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world

23

propositional thought

adolescents ability to evaluate the logic of propositions without referring to real- world circumstances

24

imaginary audience

adolescents belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern

25

personal fable

inflated opinion of their own importance

26

identity

defining who you are, what you value, and they attractions you choose to pursue in life

27

identity versus role confusion

conflict of adolescence, if young people's earlier conflicts were resolved negatively or if society limits their choices to ones that do not match their abilities or desires, they may appear shallow, directionless, and unprepared for the challenges of adulthood

28

identity achievement

commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration

29

identity diffusion

apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment

30

identity moratorium

exploration without having reached commitment

31

identity foreclosure

commitment in the absence of exploration

32

ethnic identity

sense of ethic group memberships and attitudes and feelings associated with that membership

33

acculturative stress

psychological distress resulting from conflict between minority and host culture

34

bicultural identity

the exploring and adopting values from both the adolescents subculture and the dominant culture

35

preconventional level

children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions based on their consequences

36

conventional level

individuals continue to regard conformity to social rules as important

37

postconventional

move beyond unquestioning support for their own society's rules and laws. morality in terms of abstract principles

38

moral self relevance

degree to which morality is central to self-concept