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human anatomy chapter 6

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1

The axial skeleton
1. Composed of...
2. 3 regions

1. bones along the central axis of the body
2. A. Skull B. Vertebral column
C. thoracic cage

2

functional anatomy of the axial skeleton
(3)

1. Framework that supports and protects organs in the dorsal and ventral body cavities
2. Protects special sense organs for taste, smell, hearing, balance, and vision
3. Attachment sites for muscles that:
A. Adjust the posture of the head, neck, and trunk
B. Move the thoracic cage for respiration
C. Stabilize the appendicular skeleton

3
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1. axial skeleton, 80 9. auditory ossicles, 8
2. Skull and associated bones, 28
3. thoracic cage, 26 10. hyoid, 1
4. vertebral column, 28 11. sternum, 1
5. skull 12. ribs, 24
6. associated bones 13. vertebrae, 24
7. cranium, 8 14. sacrum, 1
8. face. 14 15. coccyx, 1

4

Cranial and Facial subdivisions of the skull
the skull consits of...
1. the face
2. the cranium
3. the associated bones

1. 14 individual bones
2. 8 individual bones
3. 7 individual bones

5
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1. nasal bone 2. zygomatic bone 3. maxilla
4. lacrimal bone 5. vomer 6. mandible
7. sphenoid 8. ethmoid 9. frontal
10. parietal 11. temporal 12. occipital

6

Posterior View of the Occipital bone
1. Lambdoid suture
2. sagittal surure
3. External Occipital protuberance

1. Suture between the occipital bone and the two parietal bones (superior skull)
2. Suture between the two parietal bones
3. Bulge about midway of the occipital bone

7
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1. L Parietal 2. R parietal
3. occipital 4. saggital suture
5. lambdoid suture 6. squamous suture
7. temporal 8. mastoid process
9. styloid process 10. occipital condyle
11. external occipital protuberance
12. mandible

8
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1. R parietal 2. L parietal
3. occipital 4. frontal
5. lambdoid suture 6. sagittal suture
7. coronal suture 8. zygomatic
9. nasal bones

9

Superior view of the skull
1. Parietal bones
2. Sagittal Suture
3. Coronal Suture

1. Left and right parietal bones
2. Between the two parietal bones
3. Between the frontal bone and the two parietal bones

10
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1. Superior temporal line 2. squamous suture
3. inferior temporal line 4. lambdoid suture
5. parietal bone 6. temporal bone
7. occipital bone 8. Mastoid process
9. External acoustic meatus 10. styloid process
11. zygomatic arch
12. zygomatic process of temporal bone
13. termporal process of zygomatic bone

11
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1. coronal suture 2. frontal bone
3. sphenoid 4. supra-orbital foramen
5. Frontonasal suture 6. nasal bone
7. lacrimal groove 8. ethmoid
9. infra-orbital foramen 10. maxilla
11. zygomatic bone 12. mandible
13. mental foramen 14. mental protuberance

12
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1. parietal bone 2. supra-orbital foramen
3. sphenoid 4. frontal
5. temporal bone 6. ethmoid
7. palatine bone 8. lacrimal bone
9. zygomaticofacial foramen 10. zygomatic bone
11. nasal bone 12. maxilla
13. inferior nasal concha 14.comer
15. Mandible

13
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1. coronal suture 2. frontonasal suture
3. optic canal. 4. superior orbital fissure
5. inferior orbital fissure
6. temporal process of zygomatic bone
7. infra-orbital foramen 8. middle nasal concha
9. perpendicular plate of ethmoid
10. mental foramen 11. mental protuberance

14
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1. greater palatine foramen 2. frontal bone
3. lesser palatine foramen 4. zygomatic bone
5. vomer 6. sphenoid
7. foramen ovale 8. styloid process
9. mandibular fossa 10. Temporal squama
11. external acoustic meatus

15
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1.incisive fossa 2. palatal process of maxilla
3. maxilla 4. palatine bone
5. internal nares 6. zygomatic arch
7. medial and lateral pterygoid processes
8. foramen lacerum 9. carotid canal
10. temporal bone 11. mastoid process

16
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1. jugular foramen 2. conyloid fossa
3. lambdoid suture 4. occipital bone
5. external occipital protuberance
6. stylomastoid foramen 7. occipitomastoid suture
8. occipital condyle 9. foramen magnum
10. superior nuchal line

17
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1. frontal bone 2. ethmoid
3. sphenoid 4. temporal bone
5. carotid canal 6. mastoid foramen
7. parietal bone 8. occipital bone
9. foramen magnum

18
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1. crista gali 2. cribiform plate
3. sella turcica 4. foramen rotundum
5. foramen lacerum 6. foramen ovale
7. foramen spinosum 8.internal acoustic meatus
9. jugular foramen 10. hypoglossal canal

19
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1. coronal suture 2. frontal bone
3. sphemoid 4. sphenoid sinus
5. frontal sinus 6. crista galli
7.nasal bone 8. perpendicular plate of ethmaid
9. vomer 10. palatine bone
11. maxilla 12.mandible

20
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1. parietal bone 2. squamous suture.
3. temporal bone 4. lambdoid suture
5. hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica
6. internal acoustic meatus 7. occipital bone
8. hypoglossal canal 9. styloid process

21

Occipital bone
1. foramen magnum
2. occipital condyles
3. hypoglossal canals
4. condyloid foramen

1. opening for the spinal cord
2. articulate with the first cervical vertebra
3. opening for the hypoglossal nerve that innervates the tongue

22

Temporal bone
1. squamous part of the temporal bone
2. mastoid process
3. mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
4. styloid process
5. external acoustic meatus

1. Relatively flat bone of the skull
2. Consists of the mastoid sinuses
3.
4. Neck muscle attachment
5. Entrance into the ear canal

23
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1. foramen magnum
2. occipital condyle
3. external occipital crest
4. superior nuchal line
5. external occipital protuberance

24
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1. external acoustic meatus 2. mastoid process
3. styloid process 4. mandibular fossa
5. articular tubercle 6. zygomatic process

25
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1. foramen rotundum 2. superior orbital fissure
3. optic canal 4. optic groove
5. anterior clinoid process 6. lesser wing
7. greater wing 8.Tuberculum sellae
9. Sella turcica

26

optic canal

openings for the optic nerve

27

the ethmoid bone
1. Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
2. crista galla
3. cribiform plate
4. cribiform plate foramina

1. superior portion of the nasal septum
2. superior portion of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
3. borders the crista galli
4. openings for the olfactory nerves

28
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1. crista galli 2. cribiform plate
3. perpendicular plate 4. middle nasal concha

29

The Cranial Fossa
1. anterior cranial fossa
2. Middle cranial fossa
3. Posterior cranial fossa

1. Consists of the frontal and ethmoid bones
2. Extends from the internal nares to the petrous portion of the temporal bone
Consists of the sphenoid, temporal, and parietal bones
3. Extends from the petrous portion of the temporal bone to the posterior skull
Consists mainly of the occipital bone

30
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1. anterior cranial fossa
2. middle cranial fossa
3. posterior cranial fossa

31

The Maxillae
1. makes up the...
2. consists of...
3. infra-orbital foramen
4. Incisive foramen

1. upper jaw
2. a left and right maxilla
3. openings for the maxxillary nerve passing through the foramen rotundum
4. Opening for nerve and small arteries that innervate the palatal surface

32
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1. frontal process 2. orbital surface
3. zygomatic process 4. infraorbital foramen
5. Incisive canals 6. Maxillary sinus
7. Palatine process 8. Alveolar process

33
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1. body 2. ramus
3. condylar process 4. mandibular notch
5. coronoid process 6. angle
7. mental foramen 8. alveolar margin
9. mylohyoid line 10. mental protuberance
11. submandibular fossa

34
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1. frontal bone 2. frontal sinuses
3. ethmoid 4. nasal bone
5. maxilla 6. sphenoidal sinuses
7. shenoid 8. superior nasal concha
9. middle nasal concha 10. inferior nasal concha

35
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36
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1. coronal suture 2. squamous suture
3. mastoid fontonel 4. sphenoidal fontanel
5. lambdoid suture

37
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1. frontal suture 2. anterior fontanel
3. saggital suture 4. posterior fontanel

38

Functional anatomy of the Vertebral column (5)

1. Encloses and protects the spinal cord
2. Supports the skull
3. Supports the weight of the head, neck, and trunk
4. Transfers weight to the lower limbs
5. Helps maintain the upright position of the body

39
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1. cervical 2. thoracic 3. lumbar
4. sacral 5. cervical 6. thoracic
7. lumbar 8. sacral 9. Coccygeal

40

why does a developing infant lack balance

1. they lack the proper curvature
2. they lack muscle coordination

41

1. Atlas
A. does
2. Axis
A. does

1. Cervical 1
A. articulates with the occipital condyle of the skull
2. Cervical 2
A. allows rotation of the head

42

1. The ribs articulate with....
2. the ______ vertebrae support the weight of the torso

1. the 12 thoracic vertebrae
2. Lumbar

43

Abnormal curvatures of the vertebral calumn
1. scoliosis
2. kyphosis
3. lordosis

1. abnormal lateral curvature
2. exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic region
3. exxagerated anterior curvature of the lumbar region

44
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1. vertebral arch 2. vertebral foramen
3. pedicle 4. transverse process
5. costal process 6. spinous process
7. lamina 8. superior articular process
9. superior articular facet
10. transverse foramen 11. vertebral body

45
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1. transverse costal facet for tubercle of rib
2. superior costal facet 3. spinous process
4. lamina 5. transverse process
6. superior articular facet
7. superior articular process
8. pedicle 9. inferior costal facet
10. vertebral foramen 11. vertebral body

46
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1. superior articular facet 2. vertebral foramen
3. spinoud process 4. lamina
5. superior articular process 5. pedicle
6. vertebral body

47
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1. articular facet for dens 2. dens
3. transverse ligament 4. atlas (C1)
5. Axis (C2)

48
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1. coccygeal cornu 2. lateral sacral crest
3. medean sacral crest 4. sacral canal

49
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1. sacral tuberosity 2. lateral sacral crest
3. median sacral crest 4. sacral cornu
5. coccygeal cornu 6. sacral promontory
7.auricular surface 8. sacral curve
9. coccyx

50
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1. ala 2. sacral promontory
3. sacral foramina 4. apex

51

thoracic cagge functions

1. It protects the heart, lungs, thymus, and other structures within the cavity
2. It serves as the attachment site for muscles involved in:
A. Respiration
B. Positioning the vertebral column
C. Movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb

52

Ribs classification
1. true ribs
2. false ribs

1. A rib that is attached directly to the breastbone.
2. The false ribs are the five sets of ribs below the top seven true ribs.

53

Rib classification
1. vertebrosternal ribs
2. vertebrochondral ribs
3. vertebral ribs

1. 1-7
2. 8-7
3. 11-12 (floating ribs)

54
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1. sternum 2. manubrium
3. body 4. xiphoid process
5. jugular notch 6. clavicular notch
7. true ribs 8. false ribs

55
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1. head 2. neck
3. tubercle 4. angle
5. costal groove 6. body
7. articular facet
8. attachment to costal cartilage