RSE 13

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Articulations and Body Movements
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College: First year
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1

typically allows a slight degree of movement

cartilaginous

2

includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis

cartilaginous

3

essentially immovable joints

fibrous

4

sutures are the most remembered examples

fibrous

5

charactereized by cartilage connecting the bony portions

cartilaginous

6

all characterized by a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity

synovial

7

all are freely movable or diarthrotic

synovial

8

bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue

fibrous

9

include the hip, knee and elbow joints

synovial

10

Describe the structure and function of the following structures or tissues in relation to a synovial joint: ligament, tendon, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, bursa

Ligament: Dense fibrous connective tissue; attaches bones together; reinforces joints.
Tendon: Dense fibrous connective tissue; reinforces the joint capsule as it spans a joint.
Articular cartilage: Hyaline cartilage; reduces friction where bones articulate.
Synovial membrane: Loose connective tissue; produces synovial fluid which decreases frictions within the joint capsule.
Bursa: Fluid-filled synovial sac which cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone.

11

joint between skull bones

suture

12

joint between the axis and atlas

pivot

13

hip joint

ball and socket

14

intervertebral joints (between articular processes)

gliding

15

joint between forearm bones and wrist

condyloid

16

elbow

hinge

17

interphalangeal joints

hinge

18

intercarpal joints

gliding

19

joint between tarsus and tibia/fibula

hinge

20

joint between skull and vertebral column

condyloid

21

joint between jaw and skull

hinge

22

joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones

condyloid

23

epiphyseal plate of a child's long bone

synchondrosis

24

a multiaxial joint

ball and socket

25

Along with the saddle joint, a biaxial joint

condyloid

26

Along with the pivot joint, a uniaxial joint

hinge

27

When considering movement, what do all uniaxial joints have in common?

They allow movment in only one plane

28

When considering movement, what do all biaxial joints have in common?

They allowmovement in two planes

29

When considering movement, what do all multiaxial joints have in common?

They allow all angular movement and rotation

30

What characteristics to all joints have in common?

All consist of bony regions separated by fibrous or cartilaginous connective tissue.

31

Which joints, the hip or the knee, is more stable? Name two important factors that contribute to its stability.

Hip; Deep socket for femur and strongly reinforced articular capsule

32

Name two important factors that contribute to the stability of the knee.

menisci and intracapsular cruciate ligaments.

33

Describe how the structure of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) allows us to chew hard candy and hazel nuts.

The superior compartment of the synovial cavity causes the mandible to glide forward, distributing forces to the stronger articular tubercle (to prevent breakage of the mandibular fossa)

34

During muscle contraction, the [a] moves toward the [b].

A.) insertion
B.) origin

35

What structural joint changes are common to the elderly?

Degenerative changes (adhesions and bone spurs) begin to "sprout up" in diarthrotic joints; intervertebral discs begin to degenerate. These changes lead to increased joint stiffness and pain.

36

Define sprain and dislocation.

Sprain: ligaments reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching, or torn away fromt he bony attachment.
Dislocation: Bones are foced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity.