CHAPTER 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue

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CHAPTER 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue Multiple choice exam
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1) The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

A) spongy bone
B) irregular bone
C) compact bone
D) trabecular bone

Answer: C


2) Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.

A) fat
B) blood-forming cells
C) elastic tissue
D) Sharpeyʹs fibers

Answer: A


3) The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.

A) osteocyte
B) osteoblast
C) osteoclast
D) chondrocyte

Answer: B


4) What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

A) elastic connective tissue
B) dense fibrous connective tissue
C) fibrocartilage
D) hyaline cartilage

Answer: D


5) In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause ________.

A) inadequate calcification of bone

B) decreased osteoclast activity

C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

D) increased osteoclast activity

Answer: C


6) A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

A) epiphysis
B) metaphysis
C) diaphysis
D) articular cartilage

Answer: C


7) The term diploë refers to ________.

A) the double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone

B) the fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue

C) the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

D) the two types of marrow found within most bones

Answer: C


8) Select the correct statement concerning the location of blood-forming tissue.

A) There is blood-forming marrow in the diaphysis of most long bones of an adult.

B) The sternum (breastbone) is a good source of blood-forming tissue.

C) There is blood-forming marrow in most short bones of an adult.

D) Blood-forming tissue is found in the skull and pelvic bones only.

Answer: B


9) Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ________.

A) drinking fluoridated water
B) decreasing weight-bearing exercise
C) increasing dietary vitamin C
D) decreasing exposure to the sun

Answer: A


10) Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.

A) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation

B) involves medullary cavity formation

C) is produced by secondary ossification centers

D) takes twice as long as diaphysis

Answer: C


11) Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human skeleton. What is responsible for the
resilience of cartilage?

A) high water content
B) hydroxyapatite deposits
C) calcium influx
D) phosphate ions

Answer: A


12) The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.

A) hyaline
B) elastic
C) fibrocartilage
D) epiphyseal

Answer: A


13) Which of the following is (are) not the function(s) of the skeletal system?

A) support
B) storage of minerals
C) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)
D) communication

Answer: D


14) The structural unit of compact bone is ________.
A) osseous matrix
B) spongy bone
C) lamellar bone
D) the osteon

Answer: D


15) Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic)
layer consists primarily of ________.

A) cartilage and compact bone
B) marrow and osteons
C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts
D) chondrocytes and osteocytes

Answer: C


16) The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.

A) Volkmannʹs canals
B) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
C) Perforating (Sharpeyʹs ) fibers
D) the struts of bone known as spicules

Answer: C


17) The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of

A) cartilage and interstitial lamellae
B) osteoclasts and osteoblasts
C) yellow marrow and spicules
D) blood vessels and nerve fibers

Answer: D


18) The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called ________.

A) lacunae
B) Volkmannʹs canals
C) Haversian canals
D) trabeculae

Answer: A


19) For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

A) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.

B) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

C) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate.

D) A medullary cavity forms.

Answer: B


20) The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.

A) closing of the epiphyseal plate
B) long bones reaching adult length and width
C) appositional growth
D) concentric growth

Answer: C


21) Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells
accomplishes this process?

A) osteoclast
B) osteocyte
C) osteoblast
D) stem cell

Answer: A


22) Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the

A) calcitonin
B) thyroxine
C) parathyroid hormone
D) estrogen

Answer: C


23) Vertebrae are considered ________ bones.

A) long
B) flat
C) short
D) irregular

Answer: D


24) The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40 ________.

A) is slower in females than in males

B) is absolutely uniform throughout the skeleton

C) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

D) is greater in African Americans than in Northern Europeans

Answer: C


25) A bone fracture perpendicular to the boneʹs axis is called a(n) ________ fracture.

A) nondisplaced
B) linear
C) transverse
D) incomplete

Answer: C


26) Wolffʹs law is concerned with ________.

A) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age

B) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

C) the function of bone being dependent on shape

D) the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts

Answer: B


27) Cranial bones develop ________.

A) from cartilage models
B) within fibrous membranes
C) from a tendon
D) within osseous membranes

Answer: B


27) Cranial bones develop ________.

A) from cartilage models
B) within fibrous membranes
C) from a tendon
D) within osseous membranes

Answer: B


29) Osteomyelitis is ________.

A) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium
B) literally known as ʺsoft bonesʺ
C) due to pus-forming bacteria
D) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism

Answer: C


30) Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. Appositional growth is ________.

A) growth at the epiphyseal plate

B) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

C) along the edges only

D) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage

Answer: B


31) Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?

A) Growth occurs in the lining of the long bones.

B) Fibroblasts give rise to chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage.

C) Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and
form cartilage.

D) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow
from within.

Answer: D


32) In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.

A) by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis
B) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
C) from the edges inward
D) in a circular fashion

Answer: B


33) Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________.

A) osteons
B) lamellar bone
C) trabeculae
D) osseous lamellae

Answer: C


34) Osteogenesis is the process of ________.

A) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone
B) bone destruction to liberate calcium
C) bone formation
D) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage

Answer: C


35) Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.

A) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

B) the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity

C) differentiation of osteoclasts

D) calcification of the matrix

Answer: A


36) Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for
bone growth during infancy and childhood?

A) thyroid hormone
B) somatomedins
C) growth hormone
D) prolactin

Answer: C


37) In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might
be the cause?

A) overproduction of thyroid hormone
B) elevated levels of sex hormones
C) too much vitamin D in the diet
D) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity

Answer: B


38) It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces placed on it. Which of
the following hypotheses may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells
responsible for bone remodeling?

A) Increase in the synthesis of growth hormone directs the remodeling process.

B) Vitamin D enhances the remodeling process.

C) Bone deposition by osteoclasts is responsible for remodeling.

D) Electrical signals direct the remodeling process.

Answer: D


39) Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.

A) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
B) potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D
C) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E
D) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

Answer: A


40) Which fracture would be least likely in a 92-year-old?

A) compression
B) greenstick
C) comminuted
D) spiral

Answer: B


41) _____________ are not one of the four cell types that populate bone tissue in adults.

A) Osteoblasts
B) Mesenchymal cells
C) Osteocytes
D) Osteoprogenitor cells

Answer: B


42) Ostealgia is ________________.

A) a defect called clubfoot
B) a disease of the bone
C) pain in a bone
D) fractured bone

Answer: C


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