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Exercise 38: Anatomy of the Digestive System

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created 3 years ago by jncanf
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Exercise 38 pg 591 - 596 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!

updated 3 years ago by jncanf

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  • 1
    THE GENERAL ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL GIVEN THE LAYER, NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LAYER, AND MAJOR FUNCTIONS.

    WALL LAYER: MUCOSA
    SUBDIVISON OF THE LAYER: SURFACE EPITHELIUM, LAMINA PROPRIA, MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE
    MAJOR FUNCTIONS: SECRETION, ABSORPTION, AND PROTECTION
  • 2
    THE GENERAL ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL GIVEN THE LAYER, NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LAYER, AND MAJOR FUNCTIONS.

    WALL LAYER: SUBMUCOSA
    SUBDIVISON OF THE LAYER: NONE
    MAJOR FUNCTIONS: NUTRITION AND PROTECTION
  • 3
    THE GENERAL ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL GIVEN THE LAYER, NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LAYER, AND MAJOR FUNCTIONS.

    WALL LAYER: MUSCULARIS EXTERNA
    SUBDIVISON OF THE LAYER: SMOOTH MUSCLE LAYERS ARE= INNER LAYER(CIRCULARLY) AND OUTER LAYER(LONGITUDINALLY)
    MAJOR FUNCTIONS: REGULATOR OF GI MOTILITY
  • 4
    THE GENERAL ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL GIVEN THE LAYER, NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LAYER, AND MAJOR FUNCTIONS.

    WALL LAYER: SEROSA OR ADVENTITIA
    SUBDIVISON OF THE LAYER: VISCERAL PERITONEUM, MESOTHELIUM, ADVENTITIA (EPITHELIUM AND CONNECTIVE TISSUES)
    MAJOR FUNCTIONS: ANCHORS, PROTECTS, AND REDUCES FRICTION
  • 5
    THE TUBELIKE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANAL THAT EXTENDS FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS IS KNOWN AS THE __1__ CANAL OR THE __2__ TRACT.
    1. ALIMENTARY
    2. DIGESTIVE (GI)
  • 6
    HOW IS THE MUSCULARIS EXTERNA OF THE STOMACH MODIFIED?
    BESIDES CIRCULAR AND LONGITUDINAL LAYERS OF SMOOTH MUSCLES, IT HAS INNERMOST LAYER THAT RUNS OBLIQUELY.
  • 7
    HOW DOES THIS MODIFICATION RELATE TO THE FUNCTION OF THE STOMACH?
    LETS STOMACH MIX, CHURN AND MOVE FOOD ALONG TRACT (CIRCULAR/LONGITUDINAL) BUT ALSO TO PUMMEL FOOD, BREAK DOWN INTO SMALLER PIECES AND RAM FOOD TO SMALL INTESTINE (OBLIQUE).
  • 8
    WHAT TRANSITION IN EPITHELIAL TYPE EXISTS AT THE GASTROESOPHAGEAL JUNCTION?
    SQUAMOUS CELLS IN THE ESOPHAGUS TO COLUMNAR CELL IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA.
  • 9
    HOW DO THE EPITHELIA OF THESE TWO ORGANS RELATE TO THEIR SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS?
    SIMPLE COLUMNAR (GASTRIC) FOR ABSORPTION AND STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS (ESOPHAGUS) FOR PROTECTION.
  • 10
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  • 11
    DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE COLON AND THE LARGE INTESTINE.
    LARGE INTESTINE EXTENDS FROM ILEOCECAL VALVE TO ANUS, BUT COLON IS PART OF THE LARGE INTESTINE AND DIVIDED INTO: ASCENDING, DESCENDING AND SIGMOID COLON.
  • 12
    STRUCTURES THAT SUSPEND THE SMALL INTESTINE FROM THE POSTERIOR BODY WALL
    MESENTERY
  • 13
    FINGERLIKE EXTENSIONS OF THE INTESTINAL MUCOSA THAT INCREASE THE SURFACE AREA FOR ABSORPTION
    VILLI
  • 14
    LARGE COLLECTIONS OF LYMPHOID TISSUE FOUND IN THE SUBMUCOSA OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
    PEYER'S PATCHES
  • 15
    DEEP FOLDS OF THE MUCOSA AND SUBMUCOSA THAT EXTEND COMPLETELY OR PARTIALLY AROUND THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
    CIRCULAR FOLDS
  • 16
    REGIONS THAT BREAK DOWN FOODSTUFFS MECHANICALLY
    ORAL CAVITY, STOMACH
  • 17
    MOBILE ORGAN THAT MANIPULATES FOOD IN THE MOUTH AND INITIATES SWALLOWING
    TONGUE
  • 18
    CONDUIT FOR BOTH AIR AND FOOD
    PHARYNX
  • 19
    THREE STRUCTURES CONTINUOUS WITH AND REPRESENTING MODIFICATIONS OF THE PERITONEUM
    GREATER OMENTUM, MESENTERY, LESSER OMENTUM
  • 20
    THE "GULLET"; NO DIGESTIVE/ABSORPTION FUNCTION
    ESOPHAGUS
  • 21
    FOLDS OF THE GASTRIC MUCOSA
    RUGAE
  • 22
    SACCULATIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE
    HAUSTRA
  • 23
    PROJECTIONS OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF A MUCOSAL EPITHELIAL CELL
    MICROVILLI
  • 24
    VALVE AT THE JUNCTION OF THE SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE
    ILEOCECAL VALVE
  • 25
    PRIMARY REGION OF FOOD AND WATER ABSORPTION
    SMALL INTESTINE
  • 26
    MEMBRANE SECURING THE TONGUE TO THE FLOOR OF THE MOUTH
    FRENULUM
  • 27
    ABSORBS WATER AND FORMS FECES
    LARGE INTESTINE
  • 28
    AREA BETWEEN THE TEETH AND LIPS/CHEEKS
    VESTIBULE
  • 29
    WORMLIKE SAC THAT OUTPOCKETS FROM THE CECUM
    APPENDIX
  • 30
    INITIATES PROTEIN DIGESTION
    STOMACH
  • 31
    STRUCTURES ATTACHED TO THE LESSER CURVATURE OF THE STOMACH
    LESSER OMENTUM
  • 32
    ORGAN DISTAL TO THE STOMACH
    SMALL INTESTINE
  • 33
    VALVE CONTROLLING FOOD MOVEMENT FROM THE STOMACH INTO THE DUODENUM
    PYLORIC VALVE
  • 34
    POSTEROSUPERIOR BOUNDARY OF THE ORAL CAVITY
    SOFT PALATE
  • 35
    LOCATION OF THE HEPATOPANCREATIC SPHINCTER THROUGH WHICH PANCREATIC SECRETIONS AND BILE PASS
    SMALL INTESTINE
  • 36
    SEROUS LINING OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY WALL
    PARIETAL PERITONEUM
  • 37
    PRINCIPAL SITE FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF VITAMIN K BY MICROORGANISMS
    LARGE INTESTINE
  • 38
    REGION CONTAINING TWO SPHINCTERS THROUGH WHICH FECES ARE EXPELLED FROM THE BODY
    ANUS
  • 39
    BONE-SUPPORTED ANTEROSUPERIOR BOUNDARY OF THE ORAL CAVITY
    HARD PALATE
  • 40
    VISIBLE PORTION OF THE TOOTH IN SITU
    CLINICAL CROWN
  • 41
    MATERIAL COVERING THE TOOTH ROOT
    CEMENTUM
  • 42
    HARDEST SUBSTANCE IN THE BODY
    ENAMEL
  • 43
    ATTACHES THE TOOTH TO BONE AND SURROUNDING ALVEOLAR STRUCTURES
    PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT
  • 44
    PORTION OF THE TOOTH EMBEDDED IN BONE
    ROOT
  • 45
    FORMS THE MAJOR PORTION OF TOOTH STRUCTURE, SIMILAR TO BONE
    DENTIN
  • 46
    PRODUCES THE DENTIN
    ODONTOBLAST
  • 47
    SITE OF BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES, AND LYMPHATICS
    PULP
  • 48
    ENTIRE PORTION OF THE TOOTH COVERED WITH ENAMEL
    ANATOMICAL CROWN
  • 49
    IN THE HUMAN, THE NUMBER OF DECIDUOUS TEETH IS __1__; THE NUMBER OF PERMANENT TEETH IS __2__.
    1. 20
    2. 32
  • 50
    THE DENTAL FORMULA FOR PERMANENT TEETH IS

    2,1,2,3
    ------- x 2
    2,1,2,3

    EXPLAIN WHAT THIS MEANS.
    2 INCISORS, 1 CANINE, 2 PREMOLARS AND 3 MOLARS ON UPPER TEATH, 2 INCISORS, 1 CANINE, 2 PREMOLARS AND 3 MOLARS ON LOWER TEETH. MULTIPLIED BY 2.
  • 51
    WHAT IS THE DENTAL FORMULA FOR THE DECIDUOUS TEETH?
    2,1,0,2
    ------- x 2 = 20
    2,1,0,2
  • 52
    WHICH TEETH ARE THE "WISDOM TEETH"?
    THE THIRD MOLARS
  • 53
    PRODUCE(S) MUCUS; FOUND IN THE SUBMUCOSA OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
    DUODENAL GLANDS
  • 54
    PRODUCE(S) A PRODUCT CONTAINING AMYLASE THAT BEGINS STARCH BREAKDOWN IN THE MOUTH
    SALIVARY GLANDS
  • 55
    PRODUCE(S) A WHOLE SPECTRUM OF ENZYMES AND AN ALKALINE FLUID THAT IS SECRETED INTO THE DUODENUM
    PANCREAS
  • 56
    PRODUCE(S) BILE THAT IT SECRETES INTO THE DUODENUM VIA THE BILE DUCT
    LIVER
  • 57
    PRODUCE(S) HCI AND PEPSINOGEN
    GASTRIC GLANDS
  • 58
    FOUND IN THE MUCOSA OF THE SMALL INTESTINE; PRODUCE(S) INTESTINAL JUICE
    INTESTINAL CRYPTS
  • 59
    WHICH OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS PRODUCES A SECRETION THAT IS MAINLY SEROUS?
    PAROTID GLAND
  • 60
    WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE GALLBLADDER?
    STORES BILE
  • 61
    NAME THREE STRUCTURES ALWAYS FOUND IN THE PORTAL TRIAD REGIONS OF THE LIVER.
    HEPATIC ARTERY, HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN, AND BILE DUCT.
  • 62
    WHERE WOULD YOU EXPECT TO FIND THE KUPFFER CELLS OF THE LIVER? WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?
    SINUSOID WALLS.
    REMOVE DEBRIS SUCH AS BACTERIA OR WORNOUT BLOOD CELLS FROM THE BLOOD.
  • 63
    WHY IS THE LIVER SO DARK RED IN THE LIVING ANIMAL?
    BECAUSE IT HAD A HIGH AMOUNT OF BLOOD THAT CIRCULATES THROUGH THE LIVER.
  • 64
    THE PANCREAS HAS TWO MAJOR POPULATIONS OF SECRETORY CELLS - THOSE IN THE ISLETS AND THE ACINAR CELLS, WHICH POPULATIONS SERVES THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS?
    ACINAR CELLS