Lab 4: The Integumenary System

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1

The skin is considered as an _______ because of its extent and complexity

Organ

2

The two basic tissues of which skin is composed of are ____________ and ____________

Dense Irregular conn. and Stratified Squamos Epithelium

3

Dense Irregular Conn. makes up the ________

Dermis

4

Stratified Squamos Epithelium makes up the ________

Epidermis

5

The tough water- repellent protein found in the epidermal cells is called __________

Keratin

6

The pigments melanin and ___________ contribute to skin color.

Carotene

7

A localized concentration of melanin is called the ________.

Freckle

8

4 protective functions of the skin:
- Prevents ______
- Prevents _________ invasion
- Protects against _________ thermal
- Protects against _._ radiation

- Prevents desiccation
- Prevents bacterial invasion
- Protects against thermal damage
- Protects against U.V. radiation

9

Friction between Dermis and Epidermis results in ______.

Blisters

10

Immediately deep to the dermis is the __________ or _____________ (primarily adipose tissue)

Hypodermis or Superficial fascia

[not considered part of the skin.]

11

What layer of the skin is avascular?

Epidermis

12

Cells of Epidermis (4 types)
-
-
-
-

- Keratinocytes
- Melanocytes
- Langerhan's cells
- Merkel cells

13

The most abundant epidermis cells are _________.

Keratinocytes

14

The main function of Keratinocytes is to produce ___________ cell

Keratin

15

A protein that is fibrous and gives the epidermis its durability and protective capabilities

Keratin

16

Keratinocytes are tightly connected by _______________

Desmosomes

17

Describe the shape and color of melanocytes

Spidery black cells

18

Melanocytes produces the brown- to - black pigment called ____________.

Melanin

19

Why does the skin tan?

Melanin production increases when the skin is exposed to sunlight.

20

Melanin provides a protective pigment umbrella over the ____________________ in the deeper epidermis layers.
This protects the _._._.

Nuclei of the cell

D.N.A

21

Epidermal cells that play a role in immunity:

Langerhan's cells (A.K.A epidermal dendritic cells)

22

Merkel cells in conjunction with sensory nerve endings, form sensitive touch receptors called ________.

Merkel discs

23

Where are the Merkel Discs located?

epidermal dermal junction

24

Layers of the Epidermis
- Stratum _________
- Stratum _________
- Stratum _________
- Stratum _________
- Stratum _________

- Corneum (clear layer)
- Lucidum (horny layer)
- Granulosum (granular layer)
- Spinosum (spiny layer)
- Basale (basal layer)

25

The following are the characteristics of Epidermis layer:
- outer- most layer
- 20-30 cells
- dead and keratinized scalelike cells
- they are constantly rubbing off and replaced by divison of the deeper cells

Stratum Corneum

26

Epidermis layer:
- found only in the palms and soles
- not present i the regions of thin skin
- very thin translucent band of flattened dead keratinocytes

Stratum Lucidum

27

Epidermis layer:
- a layer named for the abundant granules its cells contain
- 2 types of these granules
- at the upper border of this layer, the cells begin to die.

Stratum granulum

28

The two types of granules are:

lamellated granules and keratohyaline granules

29

Define Lamellated Granules?

contain a waterproofing glycolipid that is secreted into the extracellular space

30

Define Keratohyaline Granules?

combine with the intermediate filaments in the more superficial layers to form the keratin fibrils.

31

Epidermis layer:
- its cells contain thick weblike bundles of intermediate filaments made of a pre- keratin protein
-apear spiky

Stratum Spinosum

32

Cells in the _________ layer and __________ layer are the only ones that receive adequete nourishment via diffusion of nutrients from the dermis

Spinosum and Basale

33

Epidermis layer:
- A single row of cells immediately adjacent to the dermis
- Cells are constantly undergoing mitotic cell div. to produce new cells
- alternative name is stratum germinativum
- 10% to 25% of the cells are melanocytes

Stratum Basale

34

The 2 principle regions of Dermis:

Papillary and Reticular

35

The more superficial dermal region

Papillary

36

papillary region is composed of _________ connective tissue

Areolar conn. tissue

37

Papillary region has finger like projections on its superior surface called ____________________. (which attaches to the epidermis above)

Dermal papillae

38

The dermal papillae produce _______________ on the palms and soles

Finger prints. (Unique pattern of epidermal ridges that stay the same)

39

Abundant capillary net work in the papillary layer provide _________ for the epidermis layer and allow ______ to radiate to the skin surface.

nutrients
heat

40

The touch and pain receptor _____________ are found here

Meissner's corpuscles

41

The deepest skin layer

Reticular layer

42

Reticular layers consists of:

- Arteries and Veins
- Sweat and Sebacceous gland
- Pacinian Corpuscles (pressure point)

43

Papillary and Reticular layers are heavily invested with ___________ and _____________ fibers.

Collagen and Elastic

44

Any sort of restriction of the normal blood supply to the skin result in _________ (cell death)

skin ulcer or bed sores

45

Some of the nerve ending receptors are:

- Meissner's Corpuscles (pain receptor)
- Pacinian Corpuscles (pressure receptor)
- Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus)

46

Skin color is a result of:
-
-
-

- relative amount of melanin in skin
- relative amount of carotene in skin
- oxygenation of blood

47

______________ a yellow pigment.

Carotene

48

Carotene is primarily present in the stratum ____________ and ______________ tissue of hypodermis.

stratum corneum and adipose tissue

49

Skin color can be an important _________________.

diagnostic tool

50

Accessory organs of the skin:

- Cutaneous gland
- hair
- nails

51

Hair, nails, and cutaneous glands are all derivatives of ___________________ but they reside in _______.

Epidermis

Dermis

52

Hair consists of a ______________, a centralregion surrounded first by the __________ and then by a protective ___________.

medulla
central region surrounded by cortex and protective cuticle

53

Identity the parts of the hair:
- portion of hair enclosed within the follicle
- portion projecting from the scalp surface
- collection of well- nourished germinal epithelial cells at the basal end of the follicle

- root
- shaft
- hair bulb

54

A structure formed from both epidermal and dermal cells

Follicle

55

A small part of the dermal tissue protrudes into the hair bulb from the connective tissue sheath and provides nutrition to the growing hair is called the ____________-

Papilla

56

Small bands of smooth muscle cells connect each hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis.

Arrector pilli muscle

57

contraction of arrector pilli muscle results in

goose bumps

58

2 categories of cutaneous gland

sebacceous gland and sudoriferous gland

59

Sebacceous glands are found all over the body except for ______ and __________

palms and soles

60

product of sebacceous gland

sebum

61

accumulation of dried sebum, bacteria, and melanin from epitheloal cells in the oil duct

black head

62

an active infection of the sebacceous gland

acne

63

sweat glands are categorized by the composition of their _____________-

secretion

64

Merocrine sweat glands are also called the

Eccrine gland

65

Eccrine gland produces clear _____________ primarily made of water, salts and urea

perspiration

66

Apocrine glands are predominantly found in the ___________ and ___________ areas

axillary and genital area

67

Apocrine gland secrete a ____________________ substance that is excellent nutrient medium for microorganism found on the skin

milky protein and fat rich substance

68

Translucent cells in the thick skin containing keratin fibrils

stratum lucidum

69

dead cells

stratum corneum and lucidum

70

dermal layer responsible for fingerprints

papillary layer

71

vascular region

dermis-- papillary region, reticular

72

major skin area that produces derivatives

epidermis

73

apidermal region exhibiting the most rapid cell division

stratum basale

74

scalelike dead cells, full of keratin, that constantly slough off

stratum corneum

75

mitotic cells filled with intermediate filaments

stratum spinosum

76

has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers

dermis, reticular

77

location of melanocytes and merkel cells

stratum basale

78

area where weblike pre- keratin filaments first appear

stratum spinosum

79

region of areolar connective tissue

papillary layer

80

What substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in Ca+ absorption elsewhere in the body?

Vitamin D3

81
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82
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Eccerine gland.

83
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84
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A- Epidermis (Stratified Squamos Epithelium)
B- Dermis (pap- aerolar, retic.- Den Ireg.)
C- Hypodermis (Adipose)