Chapter 5 The Greek City-States Vocabulary

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1

frescoes

paintings made on wet plaster walls

2

polis

Greek word for city-state

3

acropolis

a hill where a fortress may have been built

4

agora

marketplace

5

Minoans

named after the legendary king of Crete who had his palace in the city of Knossos

6

Mycenaeans

A warring people who controlled mainland Greece from 1600 B.C. to about 1200 B.C. and built fort-like cities.

7

myths

traditional stories about gods, godesses, and heroes

8

oracles

gods spoke through priests and priestesses at these special places

9

aristocracies

nobles, meaning "rule by the best"

10

hoplite

a kind of nonaristocratic soldier

11

tyrants

someone who illegally took power but had the people's support

12

popular government

people can and should rule themselves

13

democracy

government in which citizens take part

14

Iliad

legend of the Trojan War

15

Odyssey

story of what happened after the Trojan War

16

Homer

wrote the epics Iliad and Odyssey

17

Olympic Games

important contests held every four years in honor of Zeus

18

helots

Conquered people of the Peloponnesus, who became the lowest class in Spartan society

19

ephors

Five officials in ancient Sparta who were elected for one-year terms to make sure the king stayed within the law

20

metics

People living in Athesn who were not Athenian citizens, who could work and who paid taxes but were not allowed to own land or take part in government

21

archons

Rulers in ancient Athens who served one-year terms

22

direct democracy

form of democracy in which all citizens participate directly in making decisions

23

representative democracy

form of government in which citizens elect representatives to run the government for them, rather than each citizen serving directly in the government

24

Draco

believed to have created Athens's first written law code and laws were harsh and severe

25

Solon

an archon who settled the disputes between creditors and debtors by erasing the debts of the poor and outlawed slavery for debt

26

Peisistratus

ruled over Athens as a tyrant

27

Cleisthenes

seized power in Athens and turned it into a democracy

28

terracing

carving small, flat plots of land from hillsides

29

import

a good or service bought from another country or region

30

export

a good or service sold to another country or region

31

pedagogue

a male slave who taught the boy manners

32

ethics

deals with what is good and bad, and moral duty

33

rhetoric

study of oratory and debate

34

Sappho

the daughter of a wealthy Greek family and became famous for her poetry

35

Sophists

men who opened schools for older boys

36

Persian Wars

series of conflicts between Greece and Persia from 500 BC to 479 BC

37

Battle of Marathon

place where the outnumbered Athenians defeated the Persians

38

Battle of Thermopylae

place where 300 Spartans refused to surrender and fought until they were all killed

39

Themistocles

Athenian leader who tricked Xerxes into attacking the Athenian fleet

40

Delian League

alliance of city-states with Athens as its leader

41

Pericles

great general, orator, and statesman who held public office or active in public life from 461 BC to 429 BC

42

Peloponnesian War

war between Athens and Sparta